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  • Abstract

    Self-Directed Learning is the emerging trend in education. This study was based on the meta-analysis of self-directed learning. The purpose of the meta-analysis was to study the trends in recent years and to devise a tool for meta-analysis systematic review. Five years (2013-2018) were taken as sample period for the study. Analysis was made regarding effectiveness of the SDL, factors that contribute in adopting self directed approaches for development of learning domains and finally, the use of ICT as self-directed learning approaches. A largenumber of articles were available during this time period. Three dimension of SDL were focused. The variables were the SDL effectiveness, factors contributing to SDL and the use of ICT in self directed learning. PRISMA technique was utilized for this meta-analysis. In this study each aspect was reviewed using critical lenses on the basis of eight articles. The focus was on the title, objectives, methodology, variablesand its findings and recommendations. The study revealed that in last five years the research on self directed learning focused on the use of ICT and factors contributing self directed learning. Merging of self-directed learning techniques helps to improve the efficiency of learning in digital era.

    Key Word: Self Directed Learning, ICT, Effectiveness, Meta-analysis.

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    Sadia Naz & Muhammad Athar Hussain

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    This study was designed to measure the effect of head teacher’s effectiveness score on school performance. Head teacher effectiveness is a process of measuring actions or behaviors based on quality performance standards of effective head teacher. School performance is the extent to which school personnel have achieved their short and long term educational goals. Using the multistage sampling technique, 1026 secondary school teachers were surveyed in Sahiwal Division who evaluated the effectiveness of their head teachers through Head Teacher Effectiveness Questionnaire (HTEQ) developed by the researchers based on quality performance standards. The HTEQ which included five factors—Instructional Leadership, School Climate, Teacher Evaluation, Organizational Management, and Communication and Community Relations—demonstrated high level of overall reliability (α=0.88) with factor-wise reliability range from 0.77 to 0.85. School performance data were collected through monthly visit reports of Monitoring and Evaluation Assistants (MEAs) on factors such as Teacher Presence, Student Presence, Functioning of Facilities, School Cleanliness; and Student Achievement scores were collected from respective schools. The study found moderate positive relationship between head teacher’s effectiveness scores and school performance (r=.59). The findings of the study revealed that head teacher’s effectiveness significantly combined to predict school performance, explaining 36% of the observed variance in school performance. The study provided initial evidence of the validity of the HTEQ. The limitations and recommendations have also been suggested in the study. 

    Keywords: Head teacher’s effectiveness; instructional leadership; school climate; teacher evaluation; organizational management; communication and community relations; school performance

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    Muhammad Irfan Malik & Muhammad Akram

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  • Abstract

    The Jomtien Conference on Education for All in Thailand (1990) identified many important educational areas needing addressed: language, numeracy, problem solving, basic knowledge, skills, values and attitudes. Early years education can be seen as laying the foundation for later development. The objectives of the research are to explore how Pre-primary teachers understood the nature of quality in early years education and how they saw their own teaching and the external constraints placed on them in relation to quality. 60 head teachers and 180 pre-primary teachers completed questionnaires (franchised schools) in Lahore at Early Childhood Education level. The questionnaires employed multiple formats: semantic differential, situational set format and open questions. Principal components analysis was applied to the questions but only with the semantic differential items was a factor structure observed. This suggested that there were three key aspects to quality as seen by both teachers and head teachers: the place of play and enjoyment unrestricted by imposed curriculum demands; the freedom to develop rich learning experiences without always thinking of the needs of the next stage (primary education); the need to take responsibility and to set their own standards to ensure quality. Statistically significant differences were observed between the response patterns of teachers and head teacher but much related to the greater experience of head teachers.

    Key Words: Early Childhood Education, Pre-primary teachers, quality education, factors encouraging quality.

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    Asma Alvi, Muhammad Asif & Norman Reid

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  • Abstract

    The targets of quality education can be achieved through the efficient and trained workforce responsible for delivery of education. The study was conducted to investigate the impact of induction training on pedagogical skills and classroom practices of elementary school teachers in Punjab. Twenty teachers who were inducted in 2018 and gone through induction training were selected through convenience sampling to participate in this study. An observational protocol was developed to observe them teaching in their real time classrooms. Descriptive data indicated that newly inducted teachers didn’t show significant improvement in the pedagogical skills and classroom practices due to their participation induction level training. The skills, if any, they are applying are being used unknowingly and with least effect on the students. So, it can be concluded that the induction trainings offered by QAED have no greater impact on improving pedagogical skills of the newly inducted teachers. It is strongly recommended that these teachers should be followed by the training academy for first few years so that the impact of induction trainings can be made visibly significant.

    Keywords: Effectiveness, Induction training, Teaching and learning, Pedagogical skills

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    Adila Khanam & Intzar Hussain Butt

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  • Abstract

    At present Pakistan is facing many challenges like poverty, power crisis, pollution, population explosion, economy crisis etc. However, illiteracy is one of the most important issue and also a determining factor in the stunted growth of democracy in Pakistan. This research paper attempts to find out the correlation between education and democracy, in other words the dynamic relationship that exists between the literacy rate of a country and the establishment of democracy in the country. The core findings of this article are that the ingredient of education is of prime importance and thus, cannot be separated from the recipe of democracy. The developed nations worked out a system that suited their needs, sure they learned via getting experience from experimenting, but the times have changed and in present times the international arena has become more complex and survival has become more complicated, therefore the developing nations cannot afford to experiment, thus education is the shortest route to achieve good governance by practicing democratic norms in true sense. But democracy can flourish and be a success in a society even if the bulk of the masses are not literate because it will gradually teach them the art of citizenship through experience. In case of Pakistan, some reforms need to be done like, change in the education system, promotion of gender equality, investing more on education, need to eradicate sectarianism and religious fanaticism etc. to smoothen the functioning of democracy.

    Key Words: Democracy, Education, Literacy rate, Pseudo-democracy

     

     

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    Ghulam Mustafa , Muhammad Nawaz & Fatima Khan

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  • Abstract

    The purpose of the study to analyze the effects of human resource development practices in the faculty development of Pakistani universities. This was a two folded study, i.e. to examine the existing HR practices being applied in higher education institutions of Pakistan for faculty development and to suggest an applicable faculty development model for universities. The study reviewed effect of HR practices i.e. training and development, performance appraisal, and working environment on organizational growth. Data was gathered from 525 faculty members, executive and administrative heads of social sciences departments of randomly selected ten public and ten private sector universities of Punjab. Structural equation modeling was applied to develop a model through AMOS Software version 21. The results of the study reflected that the above-mentioned HR practices positively contribute to faculty development program if implemented in true spirit.

    Keywords: Human resources development, Human resource practices, Faculty development, Pakistani Universities

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    Abdul Shakoor & Muhammad Tahir Khan Farooqi

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  • Abstract

    Parental involvement is essential for child’s successful learning and development of essential skills. They nurture self-regulated behaviors by satisfying the necessary needs of their child. In this study a causal comparative design was used to explore the causal relationship among parental involvement, self-regulated learning and academic achievement of secondary school students. The sample was consisted of 619 students of public and private secondary schools of a metropolitan city of Pakistan selected through multistage probability sampling. Self-developed instruments PII (Parental Involvement Inventory) and ASLI (Academic Self-regulated Learning Inventory) were used to collect respondents’ responses. This study revealed four key parenting dimensions; autonomy support, academic assistance, structure facilitation and relatedness that have stronger considerable effect on academic achievement as well as on self-regulated learning. These parenting dimensions are found to shape students’ attitude for self-regulated learning at home settings that may cause to empower their learning at school and improves their academic grades. It is also found that parents of private secondary school students are more concerned with their Childs’ learning and those students are found more self-regulated and high in their academic affairs. So, there may be parental involvement programs directed in order to ensure parents’ involvement in their child’s learning. School-home relationship be more structured in order to create awareness about how to teach and coach self-regulatory process at home to their children by satisfying their psychological needs to make their learning progress more vibrant.

     Keywords: Parental involvement, Self-regulated learning, Autonomy support, Academic assistance, Structure facilitation, Academic achievement

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    Authors

    Muhammad Shahid Farooq & Iqra Asim

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  • Abstract

    One of the major problems faced by teacher is that students are not motivated to learn and fail to do class participation. To maintain motivation and tying students’ Cognitive Engagement, individual motivation can be influenced with the help of different motivational strategies. This experimental study (pre-test posttest control group design) was conducted in a public school of Punjab province at elementary level. During experimental study five different motivational strategies (worksheets, puzzles and hands-on activities, encouragement, rewards & punishment) were used to cover the content from the 7th class general science book for a period of 2 months. After the intervention, results of t-test revealed that the strategies used in experimental group engaged students’cognitively and are capable of doing their work with enthusiasm, commitment and keen interest and trying to command mastery over their learning to achieve the highest result; whereas “disengaged students” do their work but without commitment and interest. It was recommended that different types of motivational strategies be introduced in the curriculum of PTTB at primary and elementary level to completely engage the students.

    Key words: Motivational strategies, Student Cognitive Engagement, Science

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    Authors

    Sidra Aslam , Muhammad Anwer & Muhammad Subhan Yousaf