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  • Volume : Volume 1 Issue : Issue 1 Year: 2014 Publish Date: 2014-12-12

    Identifying Causes of Parents’ Dissatisfaction over Public Sector Schools

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  • Abstract

    The purpose of the study was to identify the factors of parent’s dissatisfaction over public sector schools. The population comprised of the parents whose children were attending a school. The study was delimited to Sargodha and Khushab Districts. A structured interview was conducted of 66 parents of children of government schools selected through convenience sampling. The conceptual framework for the study was based on five factors: communication from school; teachers and their methodologies; learning environment of the school; availability and utilization of physical facilities; and the parents’ expectations from schools. On the basis of the responses of the parents, it was found that they were less satisfied with the communication made by the school, and utilization of available physical facilities. They were more satisfied with the teachers and their teaching methodologies, and environment of the school but did not have high expectations from government schools.

    Keywords: parents’ dissatisfaction, public sector schools

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    Nasir Hussain & Abdul Hameed

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  • Abstract

    The global community recognizes the real capital of India to be its age old democratic social order. Democracy here is not only a form of government but also a way of life. Education in this context plays a very important role in nurturing a democratic order among future generations of the country. But, somehow due to increased weightage on cognitive dimension based competition in society the schools are lagging behind in their task of developing citizenship qualities, thus, a status check is seriously needed. In such premise present study was undertaken on a randomly selected sample of 504 teachers of 68 higher secondary schools of Varanasi district of Uttar Pradesh, India. The findings reveal a dismal state of citizenship education particularly in state government schools. Further, private schools and urban schools were found better in providing citizenship education in Indian context. It is recommended on the basis of the study that serious effort from all educational stakeholders is seriously needed to make education a viable tool for developing an ideal citizenry for the country.

    Keywords: Citizenship Education, Civic Education, Citizenship Qualities, School

    effectiveness, Quality schools

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    Alok Gardia & Deepa Mehta

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  • Abstract

    Learning is the prime characteristic for organizational development. If university is considered as hub of promoting and generating knowledge then focus on the supportive culture is imminent in order to analyze the related practices in the universities which shape them as learning organization.  Most of the studies address business organizations; however, this study encompasses the universities. The study so designed was descriptive, quantitative in nature, non contrived and adopted a survey approach for collecting data. From the population of university teachers, sample was drawn from 17 departments of the university. Tool for the study was adapted from the work of Britton (1998) for data collection and both descriptive and inferential statistics such as percentages, chi square and Pearson correlation were applied to analyze the data. The perception of substantial proportion of university teachers reflected the weak supportive culture in the departments and teaching faculties. There is need to create web of sharing knowledge and information among university teachers for the building university as a learning organization.

    Keywords: Knowledge Management, Supportive Culture, University, Learning Organization

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    Authors

    Misbah Iqbal & Pervez A. Shami

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  • Abstract

    The study was conducted to analyze comportments of teachers towards practices in inclusive environments of model schools in Pakistan. Under Federal Directorate of Education, 16 model schools have been functioning as inclusive schools since 2007 in Islamabad. These public model schools were transformed into inclusive schools with collaboration of International Development Partners, Norway. Population of the study was teachers teaching in the inclusive schools. Purposive and convenience sampling was used to collect data from the teachers. To identify significant differences among teachers’ comportments based on demographics, quantitative techniques were used. The questionnaire was rated on five point Likert scale. The instrument reliability was 0.83. Quantitative data were collected from 196 teachers. One-way ANOVA was used for comparison on the basis of teachers’ demographics. It was found that age, academic qualification and inclusive schools’ experience of teachers have no impact on teachers’ comportments towards involvements of students, inclusive outcomes, parents’ involvement with children, teacher training, students’ assessment and available classroom facilities. On the other hand, professional qualification and total experience of teachers have impact on students’ involvement and inclusive outcomes respectively.

    Keywords: Teachers’ comportments, practices, classrooms

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    Authors

    Mushtaq Hussain, Muhammad Uzair-ul-Hassan, Iram Uzair & Joiciane de Souza

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  • Abstract

    In the present study the researchers conducted a survey of universities of Lahore to study the type of services and facilities available to the students with special needs. A sample of 60 students with special needs was selected through snowball sampling technique from seven universities of Lahore City. Three self developed and validated questionnaires were used to elicit responses of students with special needs (hearing impaired, visually impaired and physically handicapped).The reliability of questionnaire developed for students with hearing impairment was .725 (Cronbach alpha).The questionnaire for students with visual impairment contained reliability of .845 (Cronbach alpha).The questionnaire for students with physical disabilities had reliability of .762 (Cronbach alpha).  The respondents were asked to respond on three point criteria. Frequencies of responses along with percentages were calculated. The results indicated that  majority of the universities were providing facilities and services such as  free transportation, hostel and total exemption of fee charges, talking computer labs, scholarships and computer education to all students with special needs.

    Keywords: Facilities, services, students with special needs, talking computer labs

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    Authors

    Samina Ashraf, Ghulam Fatima, Mohsin Tauqeer & Nusrat Javaid

  • Volume : Volume 1 Issue : Issue 1 Year: 2014

    Exploring Generic Competences of University Students

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  • Abstract

    In this age of vast spread of education, there is a demand from the society to higher education institutions to produce labour force with applicable knowledge for the requirements of the knowledge economy. Marketable skills are expected from university graduates round the globe.  Pakistan is lacking both in competence based higher education curriculum and a relevance of higher education with labour market. Feeling the need to fill the gap, there appeared to be an inevitable need to create awareness among university students through measuring their existing level of generic competences in a public sector university in Pakistan. For the study, a selected list of competences was adapted. Four null hypotheses were tested by applying 2-sample tests and K-sample tests. Results indicated that students were well aware of their generic competences. The only need is to document those competences and make them a part of learning outcomes.

    Keywords:  Generic competencies, University students

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    Authors

    Shamim-ur-Rasool, Mushtaq Ahmad & Raheel Haq

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  • Abstract

    This article evaluates the lesson presentation skills of graduates of pre-service teacher education program. The study was aimed at evaluating the quality of pre-service teacher education program with regard to lesson presentation skills of graduates. The skills were evaluated through a series of observations in the real classroom situation. The accessible population of the study comprises the graduates of B.Ed. program of nine GCETs, functioning throughout in the Punjab. The convenient sampling technique was used to select 86 graduates for observation. These observations were made by a pair of observers in six different subjects from 2nd to 9th grade. Five lesson presentation skills were focused in the study: content, language, technique, structure, and general. The structured observation schedule was used to evaluate the lesson presentation skills of graduates. The results revealed that there is need to re-structure pre-service teacher education to make it compatible with real classroom situation. Further research may be conducted considering additional skills of graduates in regard to lesson planning. However it is important to point out the limitations of this study, especially the use of a purposeful sample may raise concerns about the validity of data and the representation of the larger population from which the sample was taken. It is also recommended that the teacher education institutions may give special focus on lesson presentation skills of prospective teachers with regard to time management, use of audio visual aids, and selection of appropriate teaching method/technique according to requirement of the content of lesson.

    Keywords: Lesson Presentation Skills, Pre-service Teacher Education, Punjab

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    Authors

    Shafqat Hussain & Muhammad Saeed

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  • Abstract

    This research was conducted to study the impact of District Teacher Educators Mentoring Support upon Primary School Teachers’ professional progress. It was methodologically related to both descriptive and survey type research. Structured Interview was used as instrument in this study. During the analysis of data, chi- square test was applied to find out the significance of mentoring programme and the difference among the opinions of the respondents. The sample consisted of the Heads of  40 CTSCs of Mandi Baha-ud-Din district. They were the respondents of the study for ascertaining the overall impact of Mentoral Programme in this district. The objective of the study was to assess the impact of DTEs mentoral support upon the professional progress of PSTs in light of CTSC Heads satisfaction, perception and opinion reflection. Major findings of the study indicated that CTSC Heads were satisfied about one identified responsible factor for the impact, i.e., the overall standard of DSD’s mentoral programme development. But they were not satisfied about the eligibility criteria of DTEs qualification, DTEs mentoral methodology, the effectiveness of mentoral programme of PSTs professional development through mentoral support programme and the DTEs professional performance. Conclusions of the study indicated that CTSC Heads were not satisfied about the impact of DTEs mentoring support programme.

    Keywords: District Teacher Educator, Primary School Teacher, Teacher Education, Continuous Professional Development, Mentoring, Professional Progress

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    Authors

    Tasleem ullah & Saleem ullah

  • Volume : Volume 2 Issue : Issue 1 Year: 2015

    Gaps in Theory and Practice of Power Dynamics in Education

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  • Abstract

    Power is complex and omnipresent. Not only is it a visible part of daily life, but its presence as a social construct can be seen in a variety of disciplines. Dahl (1957) states that despite power’s focus as a variable of analysis since antiquity, our understanding of it is far from complete. Power is often thought of as something possessed and there in lays the tendency to view it as something tangible. However, we see that even this conception of the tangible aspect of power is debated upon. In the context of education this theme is pertinent because; the concept of power is one of the factors that determines the organizational culture, and in turn, the success of any educational system. The paper is divided into two sections; firstly to share some empirical findings on existing organizational cultures as perceived by teachers of educational institutions and to look at some of the perceptions of power that teachers have constructed for themselves. Secondly, the paper is a beginning of a discussion on the need to look at the concept of power in education and relook at theories to see how power can be used for the betterment of our educational institutions. The need for this paper emerges from the author’s personal experiences and sharing the belief of Michele Foucault that power also has a productive dimension. It contributes to individual’s self making and prevalent in any relation and finally power always can be contested.

    Keywords: Power, organizational culture, education

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    Authors

    Sybil Thomas

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  • Abstract

    The current research paper reports a study investigating the awareness of Sargodha university post graduate students’ about meta-cognitive reading strategies use and reading comprehension of the academic material in English as a foreign language. The data was collected through a questionnaire (MARSI) particularly designed to expose the kinds of reading strategies adult learners report exploiting when reading academic materials (Mukhtari and Reichard, 2002). The questionnaire was accompanied by a comprehension test to judge the reading ability of the students. The outcomes of the study expose that on the whole these post graduate university students are aware of all the strategies included in the present research, with an inclination towards global strategies, followed by support and problem solving strategies respectively. However, when reading ability was considered in relation to the comprehension test, the students with preference for problem strategies scored higher as compared to the students with preference for global and support strategies. Moreover, disparity was found between male and female students in their awareness of metacognitive strategies use and comprehension test scores.

    Keywords: Reading strategies and comprehension, academic text, meta-cognition, awareness

     

     

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    Authors

    Mussarrat Azhar, Riffat un Nisa Awan & Shaista Khalid

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  • Abstract

    The study was intended to identify and compare the misconceptions in the subject of Chemistry among the students of O-level and SSC. Researchers also seek to explain how student’s demographic and educational diversity effects to their conceptual understanding. The population was comprised of 16 schools of ICT (Islamabad Capital territory) offering O-level with Cambridge University’s curriculum and 34 public schools of ICT, offering Pakistani National curriculum (2006) for their SSC classes. Researcher selected 25% educational institutions as sample of the study through simple random sampling (02 boys +02 girls=04’ schools for O-Level, 05 boys +05 girl’s =10 schools for SSC). 100 % students these classes from selected schools were respondents of the study. Content based standardized instrument of TIMMS (2008), revalidated in local context, was used. The hypotheses were tested statistically by using T-test through SPSS. In the light of findings it was concluded that there is significant difference between in misconception of the learner of SSC&O-level regarding the all ten common content areas. It was also concluded that O-level students have less misconceptions in some content areas but the overall the comparison shows that SSC students have less misconception as compared to O-level students.

    Keywords: Curriculum, Misconceptions, Chemistry, SSC, O-Level

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    Authors

    Samia Rehman

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  • Abstract

    The role of native language is vital in students’ learning at elementary level. The theorists and practitioners speak for indigenous language as a medium of instruction (MI). The purpose of the present study was to compare the achievement of students in Urdu medium test (UMT) and English medium test (EMT) at elementary level. Three hundred students (N= 300) from grade 8th were randomly selected from12 (6 male & 6 female) schools. Students’ achievement test (SAT) was used as a research tool. Paired-samples t- test was applied to analyze the data. The results show that students perform better in indigenous language test / Urdu medium of instruction as compared to foreign language test/ English medium of instruction at elementary level. However, approximately 15% students can perform better in English medium-instruction as well as Urdu medium-instruction. Govt. of Pakistan should direct to adapt Urdu as medium of instruction at elementary level. The researchers recommended to meet the international needs, talent sections should be arranged in particular schools of English medium instruction.

    Key words: Medium of instruction, Students’ achievement, Elementary level.

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    Authors

    Muhammad Tahir Khan Farooqi, Asif Iqbal & Mobeen ul Islam

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  • Abstract

    Inclusive education is indispensable for achieving Education for All. This study highlights the attitudes of public school head towards inclusive education in Punjab. The attitude of school heads plays a vital role for an effective inclusive education process as well as for overall educational progress of students. The present study is descriptive in its nature. All the heads of the schools of both sexes in public schools of Punjab province are the populations of this study. A questionnaire was used as an instrument to measure attitudes of school heads towards inclusion of students with disabilities in schools and how these school heads conceptualize inclusive education. Reflecting on data carried out from 200 schools of ten districts of Punjab. This research gives a valuable indication of the attitudes and awareness of school heads towards inclusion.  The study found that school heads of rural area have more positive attitude towards inclusion and there is no significant difference between male and female heads towards inclusion of students with disabilities. This research will reveal the difficulties in implementing inclusive education and will also contribute in the field of educational leadership.

    Keywords: Attitude, inclusive education, children with disabilities

     

     

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    Authors

    Muhammad Ashfaq, Nayyer Bashir & M. Uzair-ul-Hassan

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  • Abstract

    New university students face many problems that hinder their progress within academic adjustment. Further examination exposed that first-year university students are more likely to dropout during their first- semester. The purpose of the study was to assess the undergraduate university students’ academic adjustment. This study was descriptive in nature. The academic adjustment scale was divided into four subscales; academic adjustment, social adjustment, personal-emotional adjustment and institutional adjustment. The sample was taken convenient. The size of sample was 500 first year university students. Five hundred students (Male = 164 & Female = 338) were selected from four public sector universities of Lahore. The questionnaire was adapted and modified. The nine point Liket type scale was used to collect data to assess the undergraduate university students’ academic adjustment. It revealed that the university students are adjusted well academically. Among the scale of academic adjustment, students are comparatively academically adjusted well. The students of Govt. College University of Lahore are well adjusted as compared to students of other universities of Lahore.

    Keywords: Academic adjustment, undergraduate university students, assessment

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    Authors

    Sadia Asghar & Maher Muhammad Saeed Akhtar

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  • Abstract

    All countries of the world make efforts to reform their educational system. For the purpose many researches are conducted, various policies are formulated and different steps are taken. Several researches reveal that effective leadership is mandatory and the head of institution plays a vital role to achieve the targets. This study attempts to investigate the relationship of heads’ leadership styles (democratic & autocratic) on job satisfaction level of secondary school teachers (SSTs). The study was a cross-sectional survey and was ‘analytic’ in nature (Cohen et al., 2007). A co-relational design is adopted to get information from the quantitative data. All the boys’ public secondary schools of district Mianwali were taken as population and 19 out of 56 boys’ public secondary schools of two tehsils (Mianwali and Piplan) were selected using convenient sampling technique. A questionnaire comprising of 37 items was designed and administered to the selected sample of male SSTs. The questionnaires (230) were delivered to teachers personally by the researchers and the response rate was 91%. Validation of the instrument was carried out through expert opinion, by which the items were improved in terms of language, format and content. An estimate of internal consistency using Cronbach Alpha formula was 0.863. Mean score, standard deviation, correlation coefficient and regression were used to analyze the data. The results of the study revealed that majority of head teachers in public secondary schools of district Mianwali, use democratic leadership style which has a statistically significant relationship with the job satisfaction level of SSTs. Autocratic leadership style also has a positive relationship with job satisfaction level of SSTs but it is used occasionally.

    Keywords: Leadership styles, autocratic, democratic, job satisfaction, secondary school teachers

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    Muhammad Sadiq, Shafqat Hussain, Kashif Mahmood, Amir Abdullah & Tanveer Ahmad

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  • Abstract

    Culturally responsive education (CRE) is advocated useful for addressing teacher-student cultural mismatch and students' achievement gap. A content analysis of teacher education programs offered in thirty-four (34) Pakistani institutions was carried out. The study found neither the offered curricula aimed at developing prospective teachers CRE skills, nor national standards has been defined for CRE. Considering the multi-cultural aspects of Pakistani society, the study recommends that Pakistani teacher education institutions take necessary measures to integrate essential knowledge and pedagogical aspects to develop prospective teachers' CRE skills. National CRE standards also needed to be defined for the promotion of CRE in Pakistan.

    Keywords: Culturally Responsive Education (CRE), Teacher Education

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    Authors

    Shaheen Pasha & Humara Bano

  • Volume : Volume 2 Issue : Issue 2 Year: 2015

    Need to Change the Contents of Computer Science at Secondary Level

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  • Abstract

    Computer literacy is necessary to understand the power of modern technology and to help the students in preparing them for the future professions or occupations. Pakistan formulated National Information and Communication Technology strategy for Education (NICTE) in 2004-5. To introduce Computer Science subject at secondary level, Punjab IT Lab project was launched by the provincial government of Punjab. Under this Project 4286 computer labs were established in public secondary schools of Punjab in 2009.The purpose of this study was to investigate the problems, found in outdated computer Textbook of grade 9th at secondary level. It was a review of a text book. The study was quantitative. A survey instrument was designed to collect data through questionnaires. A simple random sampling technique was used to select a sample of Head teachers, computer teachers and students of the schools. The population of the study was high schools of Sargodha Division. The study was delimited to 226 Head teachers, 226 computer teachers and 452 students during the session 2012-2014. Data collected, were analyzed by applying percentage and mean score. The findings revealed that Content standards needed to be upgraded and updated to match the market requirements and internationally competitive in order to better prepare those students who were not going on further studies. Ms Office might be included in part 1 of the Computer Science to make computer education meaningful and relevant to the needs of the students.

    Keywords: Contents, Computer Science, Secondary Level

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    Nadeem Zahra & Maqsooda Hussain

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  • Abstract

    It was an M.Phil / Ms Level research work. It was administered to study the Overall Quality and Standard of DSD’s Mentoral Support Programme at Cluster Training and Support Center Level. Stratified systematic sampling technique was employed hereby. Structured Interview was used as instrument in this study. During the analysis of data, the percentage was used as a statistical measure tendency of the respondents and the overall standard of mentoring programme. The Sample consisted of the Heads of 40 Cluster Training & Support Centres of Mandi Baha-ul-Din district. Cluster Training & Support Centres (CTSCs) have been established at grass-root level to impart mentoring support to all Primary School Teachers (PSTs). Objective of research was to judge the Overall Quality and Standard of DSD’s Mentoral Support Programme at Cluster Training and Support Center Level in light of Cluster Training & Support Centres Heads opinion and perception. Major findings of the study indicated that Cluster Training & Support Centres Heads were satisfied about the overall standard of Directorate of Staff Development   mentoral programme development. But they were not satisfied about the eligibility criteria of District Teacher Educators qualification, DTEs mentoral methodology, the effectiveness of mentoral programme of PSTs professional development through mentoral support programme and the DTEs professional performance. Conclusions of the study indicated that Cluster Training & Support Centres Heads were not fulfilled regarding the DTEs mentoral methodology.

    Keywords: Quality, mentoral support, perceptions

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    Tasleem Ullah & Saleem Ullah

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  • Abstract

    The study was conducted to analyze the perceptions and practices of government school headteachers regarding their role as instructional leader. The population of the study consisted of all government secondary school headteachers from Punjab province. The sample was selected from two conveniently selected districts – Lahore and Khushab. The study was conducted in two phases involving 40 government secondary school headteachers. In the first phase, their perceptions regarding instructional leadership were sought. In the second phase, after sharing different dimensions of instructional leadership they were asked whether they are performing their role as instructional leader or not; and if not then what are the reasons. The study found that the headteachers have no clear perceptions of instructional leadership neither are they performing the role as instructional leader.  They feel that heavy administrative responsibilities and paper work hamper their efforts to lead the instructional activities.

    Keywords: Instructional leadership, perceptions, practices, government school, headteachers

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    Syed Nasir Hussain, Asia Zulfqar, Lubna Choudhry & Faisal Siddique

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  • Abstract

    In the recent years special education is being focused in Pakistan. Many institutions of special education have been established in the country. Heads of these institutions are facing many problems and issues for sustainable development and to cope with emerging challenges. So, keeping in view the importance of special education, the purpose of the study was to identify the problems and issues faced by heads of special education institutions in Sargodha City. The study was qualitative in nature. Census sampling technique was used to select sample for the study. All the 12 heads of special education institutions in Sargodha city in Punjab province of Pakistan was selected as a sample for this study. Semi structured interviews were conducted to collect the data from the heads of special education institutions. The interview protocol was consisting of five questions regarding problem and issues of heads of special education institution. It was developed by researchers and was validated by two experts of the field. Interviews were audio recorded by the researchers. The average time for an interview was 30 minutes. Collected data from interviews were first transcribed then translated from Urdu, a National Language of Pakistan, to English and analysed through descriptive coding techniques and percentages. Findings of the research show that heads of special education institutions are facing many problems and issues such as shortage of finance, political pressure, lack of teaching and administrative staff, and lack of awareness.

    Keywords: Heads, Problems, Sargodha, Special Education

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    Authors

    Muhammad Zafar Iqbal, Sarwat Nawaz & Jahan Ara Shams

  • Volume : Volume 2 Issue : Issue 2 Year: 2015

    Interplay of Teachers’ Reading Habits with Their Performance

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  • Abstract

    The study at hand was conducted to determine the relationship of teachers’ reading habits with their performance at secondary schools in Punjab, Pakistan. Multi-stage random sampling technique was applied to conduct the study. Three districts of the Punjab province namely Okara, Sahiwal and Pakpattan were randomly selected. Total selected sample was 248 (N= 288 including 128 Male and 120 Female) Secondary School Teachers. The study was survey in nature. Researchers used two questionnaires viz., Reading Habits Inventory for Secondary Schools Teachers (RHI-SSTs) and Teacher Performance Evaluation Scale (TPES). The questionnaires were developed and piloted by the researchers before administration. Alpha Reliability of RHI-SSTs was 0.81 and of TPES was 0.87. Pearson (r) and t-test was applied for data analysis.Significant and positive relationship between teachers’ reading habits and their class performance was found. Reading motivation is a significant predictor in teachers’ performance.

    Key words: Reading Habits, Teachers’ Performance, Secondary Schools

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    Authors

    Muhammad Tahir Khan, Muhammad Anis-ul-Hasnain & Abdul Waheed

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  • Abstract

    The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between leadership practices of department heads and organizational commitment of University teachers. The study has investigated the difference of leadership practices and organizational commitment with respect to demographic variables. Data were collected from 180 teachers and 37 head of departments from three public universities of the Punjab i.e. University of Education, University of Sargodha and Lahore College for Women University. Pearson correlation, independent sample t-test and one way ANOVA were used to answer the questions. Correlation analysis indicated that department heads engaged frequently in ‘Enabling others to act’ while less engaged ‘challenging the Process’. Organizational commitment level of department heads found to be higher than university teachers. Research study has identified significant differences only for one leadership practice i.e. ‘Modeling the Way’ based on years of employment. There were significant differences between ‘Challenging the Process’, ‘Inspiring a Shared Vision’ and ‘Modeling the Way’ based on educational qualification. The five leadership practices were significantly correlated with three forms of organizational commitment. There were no significant differences between organizational commitment of teachers based on demographic variables except for continuance commitment regarding current position and years of employment.

    Keywords: Leadership practices, organizational commitment

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    Authors

    Riffat un Nisa Awan, Umaira Yasmin

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  • Abstract

    This study demonstrates the effects of Activity Based Learning (ABL) on the development of constructive investigation skill of 182 prospective teachers’ while teaching the “Curriculum Development” course at a Teacher Education Institution in Pakistan. The study shows a real-life activity improves the participants’ constructive investigation skill which promotes their deep learning of the course contents and makes the teaching-learning more interactive, effective, rewarding, and enjoyable.

    Key words: Constructive Investigation Skill; Learner Centered Teaching; Activity Based Learning; Teacher Education

     

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    Shaheen Pasha

  • Volume : Volume 3 Issue : Issue 1 Year: 2016

    Teaching Spoken English in Pakistan: Issues and Options

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  • Abstract

    Command in spoken English is need for learners of English in Pakistan. The opportunities to learn spoken English through the government educational system is limited hence a large number of students take language courses in private institutions to enhance their spoken English. This paper reports the investigation of how the English language instructors in different institutions address the various issues regarding teaching spoken in Pakistan. The data were collected from 80 English language instructors through survey from public as well as private institutions. The questionnaire was used as a tool to collect the information regarding the issues in teaching spoken English. Results revealed the poor understanding of spoken communication among learners which is reflected in speaking courses that don't address key parts of formal as well as informal communication. The study recommends a review of the difference between communication and conversation as the assumption for defining spoken English. It also suggests the provision of standard learning activities and opportunities to augment the teaching and learning practices of spoken English in Pakistan.

    Keywords: spoken English; English in Pakistan; Teaching speaking; Training speaking teachers

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    Authors

    M. Nadeem Anwar, M. Ihsan, Zafar Hayat, M. Pevez

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  • Abstract

    The main purpose of the study was to develop and validate an instrument namely Teachers’ Performance Evaluation Scale (TPES) to evaluate classroom performance of Secondary School Teachers in Punjab (Pakistan). Data were collected from 300 Secondary School Teachers from 75 public sector secondary schools (25 from each district) namely District Kasur, Chiniot and Mianwali. The major factors included in TPES were power of expression, knowledge of work, analytical ability, supervision and guidance, ability to take decisions and work output and quality. The expert opinions were sought out to make tool valid. A confirmatory factor analysis was also employed to validate TPES. Liseral was used to conduct confirmatory factor Analysis. Factor loading for each item were well above the threshold value 0.35. Correlation among latent factor was significant at 0.964.

    Key words: Teacher’s performance, Evaluation, Power of Expression, Analytical Ability, Work out put and Quality.

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    M. Nadeem Shahzad, M. Tahir Khan, Javed Hassan Akhtar

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  • Abstract

    Study was design to inspect the moderating effect of psychological wellbeing on the relationship of thwarted belongingness and acquired capability for suicide among cancer patients. 155 cancer patients both male and female were included in this study. Urdu translated version of the subscale thwarted belongingness of the interpersonal need questionnaire (INQ) scale (Van Orden etal., 2012), Acquired capability for suicide scale (ACSS) (Van Orden, Witte, Gordon, Bender, & Joiner, 2008) and Ryff’s scale of psychological wellbeing (Ansari, 2010)  were administered. Correlation matrix was used to find out relation between all the variables.  Hierarchical regression analysis was applied to find out the moderating effect of psychological wellbeing on the association among thwarted belongingness and acquired capability for suicide among cancer patients. Results showed that decreased level of psychological wellbeing strengthens the relationship of acquired capability for suicide and thwarted belongingness. On the other hand high level of psychological wellbeing yields no effect on the relationship between thwarted belongingness and acquired capability for suicide among cancer patients.

    Keywords: Thwarted belongingness, psychological wellbeing, acquired capability for suicide, moderation, cancer patients.

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    Authors

    Sabira Shakir, Mohsin Atta & Najma Iqbal Malik

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  • Abstract

    The teachers in Pakistan are certified through different pre-service teacher training programs but still not given license for teaching in the classroom. However, efforts are being made to make a final and unified policy and a model for teachers’ licensing by different experts and provincial institutions under government recommendations, particularly in Punjab. The present paper analyzed the review of related literature and perception of primary, elementary, and secondary level teachers about licensing criteria, barriers, and issues in teacher licensing,andproposeda model of Teacher Licensing in Punjab. The study was basically descriptive in nature, as the researchers collected the data from the teachers using semi-structured questionnaire. The researchers proposed the model of teacher licensing in the light of teachers’ perception and document analysis regarding teachers licensing. All the teachers were considered as the population of the study. The sample of 600 teachers comprise 200 Primary School Teachers (PSTs), 200 Elementary School Teachers (ESTs), and 200 Secondary School Teachers (SSTs) which was selected using equal allocation approach of stratified random sampling. The teachers favored that academic qualification, professional qualification, and written exam may be the bases for obtaining a license to teach. Two types of licenses i.e. initial and professional are proposed for PSTs, ESTs, SSTs in Licensing Model with certain requirements.

    Key Words: Certification, Licensing, Licensing criteria/Requirements, Licensing Model

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    Authors

    Shahwar Gul & Shafqat Hussain

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  • Abstract

    The present study was based on a survey to explore the factors that are promoting students’ learning in Mathematics at secondary level. Twenty Mathematics’ teachers serving in public sector of district Lahore were selected purposively from 20 schools as the sample of the study. Structured interview protocol was used as a tool for data collection. The results showed that according to the teachers their students had less positive attitudes towards learning Mathematics because they feel it as boring and difficult subject due to lack of practice, lengthy syllabus and the medium of instruction, i.e. English. If students had weak base at primary level then they preferred to do cramming. That is the reason they face difficulty in conceptualizing many concepts of mathematics. The teachers also highlighted many topics which are difficult for students i.e. general concepts regarding algebra, geometry, set theory, base and number theory, etc. The study also suggested different factors which might promote students’ learning in Mathematics at secondary level.

    Key words: Learning Mathematics, secondary level.

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    Almas Shoaib & Muhammad Saeed

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  • Abstract

    The motive of this qualitative study was to compare educational provisions and practices being adopted for persons having special needs in Pakistan, USA, England and France. While comparing various aspects of special educational practices, the focus of this study was to find a comprehensive picture for sake to make suggestions to improve existing setup of special Education in Pakistan. In this regard a systematic documental and content analysis was done to compare different aspects. After doing dense content analysis and discussion made by researcher; it was observed that approaches of Pakistan regarding educational provisions for Special Education needs (SEN) are insufficient and are in developmental stages; still plenty of improvements are required to meet international standards. Pakistan needs to improve legislation, infrastructure and mainstream approach for better facilitations. Timely adoption of emerging trends (e.g. inclusion) all over the world appears to be the most efficient way to fulfill needs of the persons with special needs.

    Keywords: Special needs education, Comparison, Practices, Provisions

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    Authors

    Sahib Khan & Farzana Jabeen

  • Volume : Volume 3 Issue : Issue 2 Year: 2016

    Development and Validation of Social Tolerance Scale

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  • Abstract

    This research developed a new social tolerance scale in Urdu language, embedded in the context of Pakistan. Tolerance is the acceptance and respect of rights of others and is an essential element for the peace and coherence in a society. Unfortunately, Pakistan is facing lack of social tolerance. In this condition it becomes the need of hour to investigate the phenomenon of tolerance. The present study was planned to fulfill this need by developing a research instrument for the purpose. Extracted from review of related literature, six sub factors of tolerance i.e. gender, ethnicity, religions, religious sects, disability and caste were selected for the study. Using convenience sampling, data were collected from eleven schools using. The  Sample (n=813), comprised of 742 secondary grade students and their 71teachers The scale was validated through expert opinion and by applying exploratory factor analysis (EFA).The factors were extracted on the basis of Principal components. The rotation method used was varimax with Kaiser Normalization. The overall reliability of Likert-type scale with seventy seven statements is 0.85. The findings suggest that the developed tolerance scale is valid and reliable.

    Keywords: Tolerance, Sources of intolerance, Measurement

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    Shaista Khalid & Nasir Mehmood

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  • Abstract

    The study was aimed at finding out the demographic determinants of high academic achievements of 12th grade students. All the12th grade students enrolled in public & private colleges and higher secondary schools affiliated with Board of intermediate and secondary education Sargodha were the population. A sample of 900 students was drawn conveniently from the two selected districts. Out of these 900, high achiever students securing 65% or more marks in HSSC part-1 exams were identified.  A questionnaire for students was used for data collection. Descriptive statistical analysis revealed that Majority of the high achiever students were male, 1st or fifth in family order, were from educated and separate (nuclear) families, their fathers were government employees and has matric (SSC) qualification but mothers were either uneducated or had basic education. Their fathers’ income ranges from 10,000 to 30000 per month. They either do not spend time on play or play only cricket for only one or two hours. They do not take tuition and do not watch TV.

    Key words: Determinants, High academic achievement, HSSC level students

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    Mushtaq Ahmad Malik, Muhammad Nadeem & Ghaus Muhammad

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  • Abstract

    Teacher education is the most favorite choice of Pakistani females. Gender disproportionality in teaching profession is very common issue in Pakistan and as well as in other parts of the world. The study was designed to figure out the reasons and factors affecting males and females to join the discipline of teacher education and teaching profession. The nature of the study is descriptive and quantitative. The population of the study is comprised all students of Islamabad Capital Territory, who have passed their higher secondary school certificate and completed their Bachelor degree in  the year 2014 . 25% of the total target population was selected as sample of the study through simple random sampling. The data were analyzed from Frequencies and percentages. The hypotheses were tested statistically by using t-test through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. Results of the study revealed that females’ students are more interested in teacher education programs and teaching profession as compare to male students.

    Keywords: Disproportionality, Teacher Education, Gender

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    Samia Rehman & Uzma Dawood

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  • Abstract

    Teacher education is the most favorite choice of Pakistani females. Gender disproportionality in teaching profession is very common issue in Pakistan and as well as in other parts of the world. The study was designed to figure out the reasons and factors affecting males and females to join the discipline of teacher education and teaching profession. The nature of the study is descriptive and quantitative. The population of the study is comprised all students of Islamabad Capital Territory, who have passed their higher secondary school certificate and completed their Bachelor degree in  the year 2014 . 25% of the total target population was selected as sample of the study through simple random sampling. The data were analyzed from Frequencies and percentages. The hypotheses were tested statistically by using t-test through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. Results of the study revealed that females’ students are more interested in teacher education programs and teaching profession as compare to male students.

    Keywords: Disproportionality, Teacher Education, Gender

     

     

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    Syeda Samina Tahira & Muhammad Irfan Arif

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  • Abstract

    For the transmission of knowledge and skill, Language is an indispensable component.  Language is a key for transmission of knowledge and a source of communication.  The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of medium of instruction Urdu (L1) and English (L2) on students’ self-efficacy, towards learning at secondary level. One thousand five hundred and sixteen (N= 1615) 10th grade students were randomly selected from 24 schools of both gender and locale on equal basis from those secondary schools where both medium of instructions are opted at secondary level. Self-efficacy scale was used as a research instrument. t -test was applied to analyze the data. The analyses revealed that medium of instruction have significant effect on students’ self-efficacy toward learning. Students learning through indigenous language show high self-efficacy as compared to second language learner at secondary level. On the basis of study the researcher recommended that Urdu the national language should be adapted as medium of instruction up to, at least, secondary level. The researchers also recommended that English should be used in specific schools by arranging talent sections to meet the global needs  

    Keywords: Medium of instruction, first language L1, Second language L2, Students’ self-efficacy.

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    Abdul Shakoor, Muhammad Tahir Khan & Ammara Farrukh

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  • Abstract

    The present research reports a study on how Pakistani university students project their feelings and assessments into research dissertations through the use of stance adverbials. Based on a special purpose corpus developed with 235 research dissertations of M.Phil and PhD graduates, the present research follows Biber’s (1999) framework of stance adverbials (epistemic adverbials, attitudinal adverbials,  style adverbials) and explores disciplinary variation on the use of stance adverbials in Pakistani academic writing. The corpus is divided into three sub-categories of academic disciplines: Humanities, Social Sciences and Sciences and is tagged for adverbials expressing stance to measure the frequency count of each stance adverbial marker out of 1000 words. The frequencies of stance adverbial markers are separately calculated for each discipline and one way ANOVA is administered. Statistically significant differences among disciplines on the use of stance adverbials. The findings reveal that there are statistically significant differences among disciplines on the use of stance adverbials and that humanities and social sciences are more inclined towards the stance expression as compared to sciences. The findings will help inform student writers and supervisors about the use of stance markers and presenting opinion based discourse in thesis writing.
     
    Keywords: stance adverbials, disciplinary variation, Pakistani academic discourse  

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    Authors

    Musarrat Azhar & Asim Mehmood

  • Volume : Volume 4 Issue : Issue 2 Year: 2017

    Experiences of Christian Students in Public Schools of Lahore

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  • Abstract

    Despite the Constitutional provisions of fundamental rights to all its citizens, Pakistan has been, time and again, a focus of controversy at international level for discriminating against its religious minorities. This controversy seems to have basis as reflected in media reports of violent acts of discrimination against minorities. It is also documented in gray literature compiled by various rights advocacy groups. In addition, it is investigated in limited scholarly analyses of Pakistani laws, state policies and various government interventions or lack of it. This article is an attempt to make empirical contribution to the current analysis from a human and social perspective. The article is based on an original research study which explores the Christian students’ experiences in mainstream public schools in Lahore. Based on the findings of this study, it is concluded that the Christian students did experience discrimination in public schools and this discrimination is caused due to the way the state run education system is designed and implemented.

    Keywords: Discrimination, Religious Minority, Public schools.

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    Tahira Jabeen, Faiza Tariq, Mamoona Abdul Jabbar, Mishal & Fakhar un Nisa

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  • Abstract

    Change is the essence of life having vital role in the working of social organizations. The pace of change not only depends upon the leaders enforcing the change but also on their adopted leadership style. Both helps in making the change acceptable for the society. The study at hand focused on the analysis of teachers’ perceptions regarding leadership styles contributing for emergent and acceptable change. Purpose of study was to determine leadership styles and their respective influence on the orientation towards change at school level. A sample of 308 secondary school teachers were selected randomly from conveniently selected 40 public sector secondary schools across two districts viz. Okara and Kasur. The data were collected with the help of two questionnaires from the secondary level teachers. These were Scale for Assessing Perceptions about Leadership Styles (SAPLS) and Scale for Assessing Perceptions about Change (SAPC). Cronbach Alpha reliability of both the questionnaires were 0.85 and 0.82 respectively. Research findings revealed that there exist significant relationship between teachers’ perceptions about leadership styles and the change process although no significant difference between male and female leaders’ perceptions about change was observed. It was recommended that the leaders may be given orientation about handling the change and its relative effects.  
     
    Keywords: Change contributor, Leadership styles, Gender wise perception

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    Muhammad Ramzan, Khalid Saleem & Mobeen-ul-Isalm

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  • Abstract

    The study was aimed at exploring the reasons for the parents’ preference regarding selection of private or government schools for the education of their children. The study was delimited to the parents of Sargodha district whose children were studying in either government or private schools. The sample of the study consisted of 183 parents selected through convenience sampling method. The data collected through a semi structured interview were analyzed by applying qualitative analysis method. The parameters of validation were taken under consideration while developing and finalizing the instrument. It was found that most of the parents select private schools for their children's education because of quality teaching, academic reputation of private schools and their convenient location. It is recommended for education officers concerned (Secretary schools, CEOs) to take practical steps to ensure the improvement of those areas (indicators) which attract the parents during selection of school for their children’s education. They may improve quality of teaching and learning and consequently results in government schools by ensuring the maximum utilization of available resources, application of all effective teaching methods and techniques by teachers during their teaching and focusing students' learning progress during their supervision.

    Keywords: parents' choice, school selection, children's education 

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    Hifzur-Rehman1 Mushtaq Ahmad2 Zubair Ahmad3

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  • Abstract

    The study investigates relationship between leadership styles of school heads as perceived by teachers (n=272) with teachers’ Workaholism.  It is assumed that workaholism, is a negative work behaviour that should be avoided through organizational factors, might be responsible for triggering workaholic behaviours in teachers.   Leadership styles of school heads had been explored using The MultifactorLeadership Questionaire, The MLQ (FORM5X) in terms of transformational, transactional and avoidant leadership whereas teachers’ workaholic behaviours had been explored by administering DUWAS, Work Addiction Scale (shorter version) respectively. The universe of the study were school teachers from districts in Punjab  (including both rural and urban areas) comprising sample of 272 (n=272) using convenience sampling technique. Results of statistical correlations using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (PPMCC) showed that leadership is related to workaholism (r=.169). Particularly, transformational leadership and transactional leadership i.e. contingent reward management, management by exception-Active, management by exception-Passive positively relates to workaholism. Where as avoidant leadership is negatively related to teachers’ workaholism. The study confirms that leadership styles are correlated to teachers’ workaholism indicating that excessive rewards, punitive culture, passive, avoidant leadership, and even transformational leadership, being the most effective form of leadership trigger workaholic behaviours in teachers. Workaholism, being negative work behaviour and having lasting negative impact on employees general well being, must be avoided.
     
    Keywords:  Workaholism, Leadership, Secondary Schools

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    Iram Parveen, Riffat-un-Nisa, & Uzair-ul-Hassan

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  • Abstract

    This study aims at investigating representation of gender in English Textbooks used at Secondary Level in Punjab. Content Analysis is chosen as method of data analysis. The data is collected and interpreted through quantitative and qualitative approaches. Categories of content analysis such as gender visibility, occupational roles, gender marked language, generic man, generic he, titles, firstness and gender attributes are set in the light of Framework of National Council of Teachers of English (2002) and Porecca’s Framework (1984) to analyze various aspects of gender representation in two English textbooks. The analysis of the textbooks has revealed that female characters are suffering from underrepresentation with respect to socially marked gender items and gender marked linguistic items.

    Keywords: Gender, English text book, representation

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    Authors

    Zarina Qasim, Muhammad Riaz & Asifa Qasim

  • Volume : Volume 4 Issue : Issue 2 Year: 2017

    Comparing English Language Reading Engagement at Elementary Level

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  • Abstract

    This study was designed to understand elementary students’ reading engagement in English language, to measure the relationship between students’ reading engagement and their achievement in English language learning, and to compare level of reading engagement in learning of English language between boys and girls. Five boys’ and five girls’ public elementary schools in Tehsil Lahore were selected randomly as sample of the study. 200 male and female students were randomly from10 sampled schools. A Reading Engagement Survey with 14 items and 3 factors was adapted for data collection. Pilot study showed .80 reliability of the questionnaire. A positive significant relationship between students’ reading engagement and achievement was found. Data revealed that female students demonstrated higher level of reading engagement than male students. The study recommends that male students should be given more attention to increase English Language reading engagement so that they can maximize their achievement.

    Keywords: Reading Engagement, language anxiety, task, reading flow, student achievement

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    Muhammad Akram, Sobia Kiran & Abdul Rauf

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  • Abstract

    This study was aimed to explore the barriers of low achievers of rural elementary public schools in Punjab. The objectives of the study were to identify the barriers which resist low achievers’ success in learning inside and outside the school and to suggest coping strategies to minimize these barriers. The study was exploratory in nature, so it carried out under the umbrella of qualitative research approach. The sample of the study was 10 teachers and 20 low achievers students selected from girls of rural elementary public schools of Sargodha, Punjab. For sample selection, first, the researchers conveniently selected 10 schools from Sargodha district. Secondly, the teachers and students were purposively selected. The interview protocol was used to collect the data. The researchers personally visited the schools and conducted interviews to obtain in-depth data of the barriers which have multilayered hidden realities and causes, as perceived and experienced by the teachers and students. For data analysis, microanalysis of the transcripts of interviews was used. The findings revealed that personal, educational, societal, economical, emotional and home related barriers are the main reasons to make girls low achievers. It was concluded that due to these forces, students remain left behind and show poor performance in the classes and examinations. The study recommends the coping strategies to schools managers and teachers that may be used to overcome such barriers.

    Keywords: Barriers, Low Achievers and Elementary Schools  

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    Muhammad Uzair-ul-Hassan, Laila Kanwal, Iram Parveen & Mehr Mohsin Raza

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  • Abstract

    Accomplishment of higher education is not enough to get employed in today’s economic world. It demands from young graduates to consider other practicable career options like entrepreneurship. The foremost objective of the study was to examine the role of entrepreneurship education in fostering and refining entrepreneurial intentions of students at higher education level. The data were obtained through a cross-sectional survey by using a questionnaire from 600 graduate and post-graduate students of three public universities. Data were analyzed using multivariate statistics. The findings showed that entrepreneurship education was significantly affecting the entrepreneurial intentions of the students. This study added towards the limited literature on entrepreneurship education in Pakistani context. Higher education sector, therefore, should give attention to encourage entrepreneurship awareness among students to cultivate entrepreneurial intentions.

    Keywords: Entrepreneurship Education, Entrepreneurial Intentions, Higher Education

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    Riffat un Nisa Awan & Ghazanfar Ali

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  • Abstract

    The central purpose of the study was to know the level of acceptability of ordinary school teachers towards the inclusion of children with visual impairment and making them aware of the inclusion of these children. The type of research was descriptive. The population included all teachers serving in the regular schools in Punjab. Researchers conveniently selected a sample of 100 ordinary school teachers to collect data for this quantitative investigation.  A close ended questionnaire was used as an instrument. Three point Likert type scale was used to get the responses of the teachers. Frequencies and percentages of  responses were calculated. The acceptability level of majority of  ordinary school teachers was high. Few of the teachers agreed that visually impaired children could get better education in special schools.Conclusions were drawn and recommendations to School Education Department and Special Education Department were made.

    Key words: Inclusion, children with visual impairment, ordinary school teachers, acceptability level

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    Samina Ashraf, Ghulam Fatima & Rukhsana Bashir

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  • Abstract

    This paper focuses on the students’ perceptions of government secondary school (GSSs) to determine the effect of sports activities on their cognitive, emotional, moral, and social development. The descriptive analytical design was used to accomplish the study. The study was conducted in late 2008 on a random sample of 257 students of GSSs of district Mianwali in Pakistan. Data were collected through administrating a questionnaire. Students’ opinions were sought on four compatible indicators of their effectual development through sports activities. Results revealed that sports activities help students to learn various social norms, improve reminiscence skills, respect towards others, self-discipline, and invigorating effects on their mind. Sports activities hardly encourage students to utilize their mental potential and control their antagonistic moods. The effect of sports activities on cognitive, emotional, and social development of students is prominent but the effect on their moral development is pathetic. The study concludes that the sports activities should be arranged on regular basis to encourage students to utilize their mental potential for their healthier learning.

    Keywords: Sports activities, cognitive, moral, social, development

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    Shafqat Hussain , Muhammad Saeed , Manzar Abbas & Saima Naz

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  • Abstract

    Motivation is a critical variable in educational institutions as it upgrades staff performance and efficiency. The current study aimed to explore the impact of motivation on teachers’ job performance. In order to investigate the impact of motivation on job performance of university teachers, a descriptive survey design was employed through close-ended questions. The target population of the present study was all the male and female teachers from Ghazi University D. G. Khan, Pakistan. The study sample size was 100 teachers making 60% of the population which was randomly selected from each department of the university. The researchers used the questionnaire as data collection instrument on 5-point Likert scale. The results validated the research questions and proved statistically significant impact of teachers’ motivation on job performance.

    Keywords: Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Motivation, Teachers’ Job Performance, University Teachers.

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    Javed Hassan Akhtar & Irum Iqbal

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  • Abstract

    The importance of communication skills could not be undermined in any field of life but its role in the field of Engineering and information technology is crucial. It is very difficult for young engineering students to shape their thoughts in second language. The task becomes more difficult when the students have to write for specific purposes like TOR, technical reports, proposals, memos and letters. Needs Analysis is the first step towards developing curriculum. It could be used to bring improvements in existing syllabus/methodology. The research was conducted to analyse the target needs of the Bachelors of Engineering students in Pakistan and to identify the gap between present syllabi and the needs of the students. The research was conducted in five engineering institutions of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The data was collected though questionnaires and class observation. The findings of the study indicate the wants of the students regarding English courses. It also reveals that teaching/ learning situation in the classrooms of English courses for engineering students.

    Keywords: Need analysis, English courses, Engineering

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    Ameer Sultan , Ayaz Afsar , Shahid Abbas

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  • Abstract

    The current study was planned to explore the impact of parents’ socio-economic status on students’ socio-emotional intelligence at secondary level. The study was correlational in nature. Survey technique was used to collect data. Data were collected through self developed questionnaires, i.e. Socio-economic Status Scale (SESS) and Socio-emotional Intelligence Scale (SEIS).  Four hundred respondents (Male=200 & Female=200) of 9th and10th class (session 2016) enrolled in public secondary schools from Sahiwal division and their parents were randomly selected as sample of study. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the data. In order to measure the relationship between parents’ socio-economic status (IV) and students’ socio-emotional intelligence (DV), Pearson r was computed. To investigate the impact of parents’ socio-economic status at students’ socio-emotional intelligence, regression analysis applied. A significant relationship was found between parents’ socio-economic status and students’ socio-emotional intelligence. Interpretation of regression analysis exposed that Family Background, Social Prestige and Home Environment can nurture the students’ socio-emotional intelligence. Economic status of parents has no significant contribution in developing students’ socio-emotional intelligence.

    Key Words: Socio-economic Status, Socio-emotional intelligence, Secondary School Students.

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    Tahir Khan Farooqi

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  • Abstract

    This research study intends to explore the educational and social considerations of spouse selection preferences of people with and without special needs. This study was quantitative in its nature and survey research design was used. The population of the study, was the students from four universities in Lahore city. Total 98 students were selected through conveniente sampling. Researchers have used self-developed questionnaire for data collection. Researchers have personally collected the data. Descriptive and inferential statistical procedures were used to analyze the data. Findings of this study reveals that youngsters prefer to marry in the age of 21-25 years with the age difference of 4-6 years of their spouses. Educational considerations, personality traits and same religious background were the top preferred features of the spouse selection criteria. People with special needs prefer the spouse selection considering the above characteristics plus of disability of the same nature. People without special needs do not prefer the spouse with disability. There is significant difference in the spouse selection preferences between the gender and disability status of the respondents. In Pakistan, there is no comprehensive study about the preferences in spouse selection of males and females so there is need to work more in terms of spouse selection preferences.
     
    Keywords: Educational considerations, Social considerations, Spouse selection, Special needs people

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    Authors

    Hina Fazil & Muhammad Atif

  • Volume : Volume 4 Issue : Issue 1 Year: 2017

    Tuition and Its association with demographic variables

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  • Abstract

    Private tuition is now a well established fact among different educational streams throughout the world with different magnitude. The countless students around the globe have to go through private tutoring even after the long day regular schooling. Over the last few decades, private tutoring is becoming a well established business oriented activity. It is also referred as “shadow educational system” (Bray, 2007). The private tutoring is complex, sometimes hidden and difficult to monitor, so there has been very less focus of researchers on it. The academies, institutions, tuition centers, home tuitions etc. are different forms of tuition. Private tuition is more common in urban than in rural areas; varies in time duration and different subjects, higher socio-economic status pay more tuition as compared to families with poor families. This study focused on the association between students’ tuition and their demographic variables in Pakistan. The sample was drawn from 37 schools of three districts consisting of 1337 students. The results show that there is a significant difference in association with tuition between gender, grade, school type and districts. Parental education and profession seems to have no association with tuition. 

    Key words: Tuition, academies, paternal education and profession, school type

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    Authors

    Zubair Ahmad Shah, Mustaq Ahmad Malik, Shaista Khalid & Javed Hassan Akhtar

  • Volume : Volume 4 Issue : Issue 1 Year: 2017

    Utility of Socio-emotional Intelligence for Teacher’s Performance

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  • Abstract

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of emotional intelligence training on the teacher performance with the hypothesis based on the literature of emotional intelligence that it promotes academic performance. Quantitative method based on questionnaire was used to measure the impact of emotional intelligence training the academic performance and enhancement of the workers. Collected data was analyzed using SPSS and results show strong correlation and relationship between the emotional intelligence and teacher academic performance and it improves teacher’s effectiveness and performance in raising a socially and emotionally intelligent child. Therefore, it is highly recommended for the educational managers and trainers to design courses and training sessions on emotional intelligence for the educational programs and projects effectiveness.

    Keywords: Performance and Productivity, Teachers performance, Socio-emotional Intelligence, Training and development

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    Authors

    Jamshid Ali Turi, Muhammad Faizal A. Ghani, Shaharyar Sorooshian & Qaiser Abbas

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  • Abstract

    This research project was planned to investigate the link between different facets of workplace empowerment of university teachers and their job satisfaction, together with the moderating effect of organizational commitment. The size of the sample for the current study was 386 female university teachers. Workplace empowerment scale, organizational commitment questionnaire and teachers’ job satisfaction questionnaire were used for data collection. Findings revealed that workplace empowerment was a good predictor of job satisfaction and it also confirmed the moderator role of organizational commitment between the relationship of job satisfaction and workplace empowerment.

    Key words: Workplace Empowerment, Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction,

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    Ghazala Noureen, Hafiza Sadiya Iqbal, Riffat-un-Nisa Awan & Musarat Azhar

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  • Abstract

    Purpose of the study was to analyze the impact of adopting curriculum instruction to achieve national objectives through teaching learning process in secondary schools. Population of the study comprised of all the secondary school science teachers and secondary school science students of government sector. Sample of the study consisted on one hundred and eighty (180) secondary school science teachers and one thousand seven hundred and forty (1740) secondary school science students. The study was delimited to only science teachers and students of science classes of government secondary schools. The questionnaires one, each for science teachers and science students were used as research tools. After pilot testing the researcher personally visited the selected secondary schools and collected data from the respondents in six (06) districts. The collected data was analyzed through using frequency, percentage, simple mean and other relevant statistical formulas. In the light of research findings it was concluded that conventional method was commonly adopted to teach science classes in most of the government secondary schools. The study recommended that new scheme of studies, innovative teaching methods for science subjects, availability of resource materials and digital technology should be reconsidered on top priority.

    Keywords: Executing curriculum scheme, national objectives, teaching learning environment, teaching methods.

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    Zahid Hussain, Ishrat Siddiqa Lodhi, Hassan Danial Aslam, Jam Muhammad Zafar & Muhammad Shakir

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  • Abstract

    The decision between remaining a stay-home mother or a working women is extremely convoluted for Pakistani mothers. There are the contentions in support and against the occupation of moms. The supporters of mothers’ job are of the feeling that working mothers assemble fearlessness, social cognizance and feeling of commitment, move viciously and parcel of monetary advantages. Subsequently, it is not mischievous for a mother to have a vocation yet it is more likely than not the cheering action for her children. The current study intends to investigate the effects of mothers’ work on the self- confidence of children. For this a sample of 175 students was randomly selected from different colleges of Rawalpindi. Data were collected personally by the researcher. Random sampling technique was used to collect data for the study. It was found that the trend of mothers’ employment is increasing day by day. The self- confidence level of the children of mothers staying at home and working do not have any significant difference. The findings of the study recommended that the self-confidence level of the children of non-working women can be increased by training workshops, seminars and by providing them the opportunities to share their vision about professional and personal life as well.

    keywords: Self-confidence, children, working and non-working mothers

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    Sidra Kiran, Qaisra Parveen & Almas Ikram

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  • Abstract

    The present study was envisioned to explore the relationship between self-efficacy, academic motivation, and conscientiousness among purposively selected university and college undergraduates (N = 200). The Self-efficacy Scale (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1995), Academic Motivation Scale (Robert et al., 1993) and Conscientiousness Scale (Paul, Costa, Robert & McCare, 1985) were used to measure the study constructs. Pearson correlation showed significant positive relationship between self-efficacy, conscientiousness, and academic motivation, whereas multiple regression analysis confirmed the role of self-efficacy and conscientiousness as positive predictors of academic motivation among students. t-test analysis further revealed that female students have significantly higher academic motivation than male students. Study implications and limitations have also been discussed.

    Keywords: Self-efficacy, academic motivation, conscientiousness.

     

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    Najma Iqbal, Summayya & Mohsin Ata

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  • Abstract

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common psychological disorder of childhood. This disorder has negative impact on the students’ learning. Teachers tackle and handle this problem in a variety of ways based on their knowledge and experience. Similarly I also had ADHD children in my class understudy. Teaching to ADHD children was a challenging job for me because they had extreme energy and restlessness in their behaviour and were unable to focus while learning something. This Action Research had been designed to solve this immediate problem with a major focus on the adjustment of their behaviour and improve academic learning outcomes. In order to achieve the objectives I used Williford’s strategy of “individualized teacher-child relationship (ITCR). This strategy provides important contexts for the promotion of children’s emotional health and learning. The data were collected through multiple means; class assessments, observational notes and weekly discussions with the subjects. It was found that individualized teacher-child relationship (ITCR) strategy is effective for teaching ADHD children and it has a positive impact on students’ behaviour and learning outcomes.

    Keywords: Action research, ADHD, individualized teacher-child relationship (ITCR)

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    Amjad Ali

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  • Abstract

    Purpose of the study was to identify expectations and satisfactions of students about higher education. The study was conducted at university of Sargodha, a public university in Punjab established at 2002. The researcher selected 11 departments through stratified random sampling from seven faculties of university of Sargodha. A questionnaire after extensive review of related literature was developed for data collection. The tool was tested for validity and reliability before administration to the respondents. The expectations and satisfaction of students about higher education were analyzed by collecting data about six major services at the higher education institution i.e. faculty, administrative and advisory services, campus climate, campus life, support services and career programs .Findings of the study showed that both male and female respondents had no difference of opinion about the services  at higher education institution. Overall students showed satisfaction with their experience at the university and especially about campus life. However majority of the students had more expectations and less satisfaction upon behavior of faculty, career programs and attitude of administrative staff working in the campus. 

    Keywords: Students' expectations, students' satisfaction, higher education

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    Anjum Naz, Tanzeela Tabassum & Sehrish Liaqat

  • Volume : Volume 6 Issue : Issue 1 Year: 2019

    Comparison of Emotional intelligence among University Graduates

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  • Abstract

    The purpose of the study was to compare the Emotional Intelligence among the University graduates on the basis of subjects opted and time spent at the university campus. Population of the study were the students enrolled in different faculties at University of Gujrat. Accessible population of the study was those understudies who were enlisted in Faculty of Natural Science and Social Science at University of Gujrat. Multistage sampling technique was used to select sample for the study. Sample size of the study was 305 (106 natural sciences and 199 social sciences graduates) students. The data was analyzed through SPSS software. This study revealed that there is a significant difference of Emotional Intelligence of students enrolled in 2nd and 8th semester as well as between Natural Science and Social science students. It was therefore recommended that the teachers as well as the curriculum developers must be trained to take care for the grooming of students’ emotional intelligence.

    Keywords: Emotional intelligence, self-awareness, self-regulation, relationship management

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    Mehwish Mehmood , Mobeen-Ul-Islam , Khalid Saleem

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  • Abstract

    The present paper is a research oriented attempt to find out the effects of Self-Efficacy on the Academic Performance of the students of University of the Punjab, Lahore. Self-Efficacy refers to the beliefs of students, who achieve our target and fulfill the task base on own abilities because they think that, they can do it (Bandura & Locke, 2003) whereas Academic performance mean outcome of educational targets and goals. A Quantitative research methodology was adopted for this study. Simple random sampling technique was used. Total sample size was 180. Interview schedule was used as the tool for data collection. The data were processed by using SPSS. This study found that 42.2% of the respondents were confident to have the ability to fulfill their goals and 54.4% were confident and motivated to understand basic concepts of their subjects because 46.1% believed on hardworking that will be helpful for them in trouble situation. For academic performance, 41.7% respondents were satisfied with their academic performance because their past results encourage them to work hard. The results of Spearman’s correlation indicated that there is significant relationship between the self-efficacy and academic performance of the students while studying at higher level learning. Moreover, Independent variable i.e. self-efficacy has effect on the dependent variable i.e. academic performance.

    Keywords: Self-Efficacy, Academic Performance, Self-Adequacy, Students’ Motivation.

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    Abid Mehmood , Muhammad Adnan , Aaqib Shahzad , Farhat Shabbir

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  • Abstract

    Classrooms are the most diverse and complex social structure for teachinglearning process where teachers practice differentiated instructions, assess students with fairness and interact with just. Sans doubt, potency in teaching always lies with teachers’ equity based interaction, assessment and pedagogy. Quality of student-teacher interaction is vital and fundamental to understand students’ engagement in classroom, fulfillment of students differentiated learning needs and their assessment that does justice with them. Teachers are considered as a catalytic agent who can play a pivotal role in students’ classroom to narrow the achievement gaps among students by bringing equity in classrooms. The purpose of the study undertaken was to examine teachers’ differentiated instructions, student-teacher fair interaction and fair assessment during teaching-learning process in classrooms. The study was quantitative and descriptive in nature and data were collected through self-developed questionnaire administered on primary school teachers. By using convenience sampling, 300 teachers were selected as sample from four tehsils of district Sargodha. The study found that albeit, teachers in primary schools are using differentiated instructions but not to the degree of satisfaction. They need more knowledge and orientation to understand the need and importance for using differentiated instructions in their classrooms. Also the study found that teachers are less fair in their assessment of students as well as do less justice with students while interacting with them in classrooms and schools.
     Keywords: Fair interaction, differentiated instruction, fair assessment  

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    Muhammad Uzair-ul-Hassan1, Bushra Kazim2 & Iram Parveen3

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  • Abstract

    Teachers play a significant role in the construction of global identity of students by providing them knowledge of the world and by cultivating positive attitude towards the global world. However, many aspects of curriculum reform related to global identity theme may be viewed and treated as a source of resistance by teachers working in a conservative context. The purpose of this study was to explore teachers’ beliefs and perceptions regarding global identity theme of Pakistan Studies curriculum policy and textbooks in order to develop and understanding of the ground level realities of curriculum changes in in the secondary schools in Punjab. For this, semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-seven Pakistan Studies teachers recruited from public and private schools in one district of Punjab province in Pakistan. Analysis of data revealed that in many ways curriculum policy by these Pakistan Studies teachers’ beliefs and perceptions show compliance as well as resistance to various aspects of curriculum reform related to global identity curriculum policy.

    Keywords: Textbook, curricular gatekeeping, global perspectives, national identity, cultural diversity

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    Yaar Muhammad , Sajid Masood & Faisal Anis

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  • Abstract

    According to Tornikoski (2011) compensation is an approach for providing monetary benefit to an employee in exchange of his work. Compensation is an important motive to attract and retain good employees for the attainment of managerial goals. This study attempts to investigate the types of compensation practices and its relationship with teachers’ motivation of public and private secondary schools. Through simple random sampling technique a representative sample of 312 male and female secondary school teachers was drawn from the population. The results of the study show that variations in compensation practices exist in public and private secondary schools. Various compensation practices affect teachers’ motivation differently. The study reveals that most of the compensation practices have significant positive relationship with teachers’ motivation whereas few of them signal fair degree of relationship. We conclude that compensation practices are effective stimulus for teachers at secondary school level.

    Keywords: Compensation practices, motivation, secondary school teachers

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    Authors

    Muhammad Ismail , Iram Parveen & Muhammad Uzair-ul-Hassan

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  • Abstract

    School environment – a significant contributor towards students’ learning, consists not only on physical infrastructure but psychological and social factors also. This study was designed to investigate the physical and psychosocial factors of learning environment of government schools. Thirty-six schools from six districts of Punjab province were selected through multi-stage sampling technique. A self-developed questionnaire was used to collect the data. The research instrument was validated and improved in the light of experts’ opinion. The Cronbach’s Alpha value of the instrument was 0.82. More than 800 students of grade IX and X were involved in the study. Using this quantitative data, the study found a relatively positive student-teacher interaction, but the students don’t feel themselves psychologically and physically safe at school. Students are assigned heavy homework and don’t get proper feedback. It was further found that though schools have sufficient learning resources, yet these resources are not properly utilized in enhancing students’ learning. So, it can be concluded that physical, psychological and social aspects of school learning environment are not conducive for learning. The government should improve physical infrastructure of the schools, while students’ social and psychological well-being should be focused in pre-service and in-service teachers’ trainings.

    Keywords: Government schools, Learning environment, Physical environment, Psychosocial environment, student learning

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    Authors

    Syed Nasir Hussain, Asia Zulfqar & Mubashra Khalid

  • Volume : Volume 6 Issue : Issue 2 Year: 2019

    Path Analysis of Genuine Leadership and Job Life of Teachers

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  • Abstract

    Genuine leaders affect the job life of followers and personnel positively. Genuine leaders motivate the employees emotionally and compel them for better job life. Healthy and positive job lives are only possible with the help of genuine leadership to perform tasks effectively. Leader is true in his own values and reflects originally him/herself as he/she is internally. The purpose of this study was to conduct path analysis of genuine leadership and job life of teachers by using smart partial least square software. Path analysis was done for the validation of instruments and determined the association between leadership and job life. Quantitative approach was employed to conduct survey study. Sample of the study was consisted of university teachers. They responded the questions regarding genuine leadership and job life on five point likert type scale. Data were collected personally and research subjects were briefed about nature of the study and necessary instructions were provided to them by researcher. Different statistical techniques were applied to analyze the relevant data by using SmartPLS software. Path analysis showed that there is strong positive relationship between genuine leadership and job life of teachers. The findings of the study indicated that instruments are valid and reliable which measured genuine leadership and job life. The outer loadings model shows the links among the latent variables and their indicators. Thus, there is need to conduct study on large sample to authenticate the results of this study.

    Key words: Genuine Leadership, Job Life, Path Analysis, and SmartPLS.

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    Saghir Ahmad, Abid Hussain & Ayesha Batool

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  • Abstract

    Contribution of higher education is very significant in better job opportunities and socio economic development of a country. The reforms in higher education in Pakistan are direly needed to face the future challenges in the age of technological disruption. The study aims at analyzing the higher education policies introduced by the Governments of Pakistan for examining the causes of success and failure of these policies, and suggestions for new education policy to meet the future challenges in higher education. The study is qualitative in nature. Data have been collected through document analysis, focus group discussion and semi structured interviews. A focus group discussion was conducted with 15 MPhil and 05 PhD scholars; whereas, interviews of 05 faculty members having PhD degrees in education sciences were accomplished through semi- structured interview schedule. The findings reveal that lack of proper funds allocation in higher education, deficiency of Higher Education Institutions in remote areas, dearth of research and innovation, scarcity of physical infrastructure and faculty incompatible with latest technological advancements are major hindrances in the progress of higher education in Pakistan. The key suggestions are; government should empower Higher Education Commission (HEC) with financial and administrative authority to provide quality higher education at the door steps of people according to local and global needs. Further, the rapid technological changes and developments may properly be adopted to improve the higher education. The government should ensure execution policies and plans related to the higher education, in true letter and spirit.

    Key words: Higher Education, Universities, National Education Policy, Higher Education Commission (HEC)

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    Mehr Mohsin Raza, Muhammad Farooq, Mushtaq Ahmad & Saima Anwar

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  • Abstract

    This paper aims at exploring the perspective which conveys a specific political point of view concerning the socio-political issues in Pakistan. The paper primarily focuses on the transcription of the comic-cartoons by Kachee Goliyan. The research builds firstly on, to find out how ideologies are encoded overtly in comics and secondly, to analyse the way the comic-cartoons resonate with the opinion and sentiments of both artists and the readership. In this era of virtual communication, the importance of social-media cannot be denied which encodes both explicitly or implicitly rich semantic, pragmatic and most importantly, ideological flow to nullify the public opinion. The findings show that comic imagery found either online or in the print media such as images, highlight and engage socio-political issues to arouse satirical consciousness of the readers. In addition, portrayal of the intriguing glimpses of culture concerned helps the readers or viewers contribute to increased understanding in the world of manipulation and in cultures at large.

    Keywords: Comics, satire, humour, ideology, and social media

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    Tazanfal Tehseem & Zahra Bokhari

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  • Abstract

    Playing computer games has been changed out to be one of the greatest exercises on the earth. This outcome seems that the effect of computer games on learners have left very important aspect. The existing writing has linked computer game utilization as being appositively related with each of these three components. This probation, utilizing an example of the under grade learners at public schools of Sindh, the population of current study was the public secondary schools of Sindh. The sample of this study consist of public secondary schools of SBA Sindh, the tool for the research study was five points likert scale. The current research study is descriptive by method and quantitative by purpose. On the basis of analysis it was found a measurably noteworthy relationship between computer game use and academic achievements. Measurably critical connections was not search out the utilization of game  and computer time management capabilities. It is necessary that learners know the effect of utilization of computer game left significant positive impact on their academic teaching learning process. This research study can fill the gap for establishment of future researches that would have a positive role on the learners that the computer game playing fulfills an important aspect on learner execution of modern knowledge through E-Learning.

    Keywords: Video games, students’ outcomes, time management.

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    Authors

    Mehboob Ali Dehraj & Zakir Hussain Gopang

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  • Abstract

    Positive motivation is an internal psychological process whose presence or absence is inferred from observed performance. This assertion shows that motivated behavior is both purposive or goal directed and relatively persists overtime. Motivation is always goal directed and leads toward achievement in life. Stress in fact mental and physical anxiety or pressure caused by physical, social, emotional, financial, or occupational circumstances that are challenging to accomplish. Stress is negative assertions that hold back the creativity of human beings. The major purpose of the study is to find out whether stressors or motivational factors are dominant in teacher educators. There is a variety of stressors are present i.e. as teacher educators’ evaluation procedure, work load, financial concern, implication of effective teaching methods, relations with administration, extra-curricular activities, policies and procedures of the institution. While motivators are also divers in nature such as time commitment, respect, experience, urge to be lifelong leaner, promotion and bonus etc. Data was collected from teacher educators of Sargodha division. The sample was selected through purposive sampling technique keeping in view preset criteria. Data was analyzed by using statistical package SPSS 0.05 version.  Bivariate statistical analysis was applied.  The key findings of the study are that stressors and motivators exists and there is insignificant difference between the junior and senior teachers stressors and motivators but extent varies therefore it is suggested that senior teachers should help junior teachers to cope with the stressors.

    Key words: Stressors, Motivators, teacher Educators

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    Anjum Naz , Sehrish Liaqat & Fouzia Ghyas

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  • Abstract

    Multidimensional self-report Welcoming School Scale (WSS) was developed and validated to examine general school’s capacity to intake students with disabilities. A pool including 46 items was created. In order to analyze factor structure, 23 items were chosen from the pool in viewing experts’ opinion. A sample of 430 teachers with various educational backgrounds was randomly selected. Twenty three items of Welcoming School Scale (WSS) were submitted to principal components analysis by using varimax rotation. A solution of four factors was obtained on the basis of eigenvalues and associated scree plot. The contents of the items were examined in detail with > .30 factor loadings on four factors in rotated solution by following the criteria of Kline (1986). The rotated factor solution was found to be more meaningful for the theoretical explanation of the factors, which produced the four subscales of Welcoming School Scale. For these four aspects eigenvalues were 3.13, 2.70, 1.96 and 1.82, respectively. The final Welcoming School Scale (WSS with 19 items) was found to be internally consistent as shown by value of alpha coefficient .71. The study also focused to explore the difference on mode of welcoming school with respect to various demographic variables. This study also measured differences between different age groups of teachers on WSS. The difference was examined with the help of t- test and ANOVA respectively and significant differences were found for three age groups. Results from t-test analyses produced considerable difference between males and females teachers on WSS, t (378) =5.36, p< .000. Male teachers showed significant and higher score on WSS as compared to female teachers. It has been concluded that future researchers may use WSS to analyze the welcoming and in-taking capacity of general school for students with disabilities along with their counterparts without disabilities.

    Key words: Welcoming school scale, validation, principal component analysis, capacity for diversity

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    Muhammad Uzair-ul-Hassan, Iram Parveen & Haroon ur Rasheed

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  • Abstract

    The study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Non-Formal Schools (NFS) established, for provision of primary education to out of school children of disempowered and neglected segment of Punjab, Pakistan, under Punjab Non-formal Education Project of Literacy and Non-formal Basic Education (L&NFBE) Department, Government of the Punjab. Data of enrolled students was collected from the web portal of the department. It revealed that the project envisioned establishing 990 NFBE Schools. The 100% target regarding establishment of schools were achieved and 33625 children were enrolled, as the target of enrolment was 19800 students. The enrollment was 61% more than the actual target. All fifth grade 373 students were selected as sample of the study through multistage sampling technique. The researcher developed an achievement test comprising of Urdu, English, Mathematics and Science subjects to assess achievement of students. The researcher personally administered the test to the students and marked it. Analysis of achievement scores showed that 61% students achieved more than 33% marks in the test. It was found that achievement mean score of male students was better as compared to female students. The achievement mean score of urban and rural students was almost same. Hence, it was concluded that the Non-Formal Schools were effective for provision of primary education to out of school children of disempowered and neglected segment of the society.

    Key Words: Non Formal Basic Education Schools, disempowered / Neglected Segment of the society, literacy & numeracy skills

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    Rohina Gull and Muhammad Sarwar

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  • Abstract

    Teaching Islamic law in a UK university is a unique experience. First, Islamic law is based on religious beliefs whereas UK universities offer teaching in a secular environment. Secondly, law schools are primarily meant to train lawyers and Islamic law in its purest form is not practically applicable in the UK or even in most Muslim majority countries. Thirdly, due to the series of recent events, such as those related to terrorism, Islamic law and Islam more generally has created certain anxieties making the teaching and learning of Islamic law a sensitive exercise. These sensitivities exist not only in the interrelationship of Islamic law with other legal systems, but also within Islamic law creating different viewpoints over the need to redesign the studies of Islamic law. The opposing views on interpretation of Islamic legal texts and their application in modern cultures and societies can potentially create frictions of thought and argumentation at the classroom level, which makes teaching and learning of Islamic law both interesting and challenging exercise. Most importantly, from the teaching and learning perspectives, the diverse background of students and their varying expectations makes the delivery of Islamic law teaching a complex exercise unknown to any other law subject. In these contexts, this article examines the implications for approaches to teaching and learning Islamic law from the standpoint of above identified challenges. By placing those challenges in the framework of existing pedagogical literature, the article addresses the UK Professional Standard Framework (UKPSF) requirements in the context of teaching and learning in Islamic law.

    Keywords: Teaching and Learning, Islamic Law, Higher Education, UK Universities, UK Professional Standard Framework (UKPSF)  

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    Ahmad Ghouri

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  • Abstract

    This survey research was performed to investigate the provision of guidance services and the possible hurdles as perceived by principals and teachers in government girls’ high and higher secondary schools of Kohat division, KPK (Pakistan). The objectives of the study were; to investigate the provision of educational guidance services in Govt. Girls High and Higher secondary schools. To explore teachers’ and Headmistress/Principals opinion about the possible hurdles in the provision of guidance services to secondary level students. The research questions were; do educational guidance services are provided in government girls’ high and higher secondary schools? What do the teachers and principals consider the hurdles in the provision of guidance services to secondary level students? Population of the study was all the teachers and principals of government girls’ high and higher secondary schools of Kohat division. Total 72 out of 77 principals and 216 out of 243 SST teachers were selected as sample through multistage random sampling techniques. For data collection self developed questionnaire was used. Its reliability index was 0. 81 checked through test retest method. Descriptive statistics i.e. %age was used for data analysis. Findings of the study showed that no guidance services are practiced in schools. Lack of training, unavailability of specific guidance teacher in schools and over work load of teaching staff are perceived as hurdles in practicing guidance services in schools. The major recommendations of the study were establishment of guidance services cell in each school, a trained guidance teacher may be appointed for the group of cluster schools who can visit each school regularly. Key Words: Guidance services, teachers’ perceptions, Principals’ perceptions, hurdles.vThis survey research was performed to investigate the provision of guidance services and the possible hurdles as perceived by principals and teachers in government girls’ high and higher secondary schools of Kohat division, KPK (Pakistan). The objectives of the study were; to investigate the provision of educational guidance services in Govt. Girls High and Higher secondary schools. To explore teachers’ and Headmistress/Principals opinion about the possible hurdles in the provision of guidance services to secondary level students. The research questions were; do educational guidance services are provided in government girls’ high and higher secondary schools? What do the teachers and principals consider the hurdles in the provision of guidance services to secondary level students? Population of the study was all the teachers and principals of government girls’ high and higher secondary schools of Kohat division. Total 72 out of 77 principals and 216 out of 243 SST teachers were selected as sample through multistage random sampling techniques. For data collection self developed questionnaire was used. Its reliability index was 0. 81 checked through test retest method. Descriptive statistics i.e. %age was used for data analysis. Findings of the study showed that no guidance services are practiced in schools. Lack of training, unavailability of specific guidance teacher in schools and over work load of teaching staff are perceived as hurdles in practicing guidance services in schools. The major recommendations of the study were establishment of guidance services cell in each school, a trained guidance teacher may be appointed for the group of cluster schools who can visit each school regularly. Key Words: Guidance services, teachers’ perceptions, Principals’ perceptions, hurdles.

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    Javed Mustafa , Mehr-un-Nisa and Muhammad Ajmal

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  • Abstract

    Information and communication technologies (ICT) have become a part of daily activities in the higher education institutions. The use of these technologies has become not only a necessity for students and other people, its use is growing at a rapid pace. The academic use of ICT is the necessity for online students. The students of conventional universities are also using these technologies for various purposes. These digital modes are also being used for bullying known as cyber bullying which is making its way into the higher education institutions as well. The purpose of this survey research was to compare the cyberbullying experiences of online and conventional universities’ students, and to explore gender differences in such experiences. A self-developed questionnaire was used to collect data. The population of the study consisted of all students (1809) enrolled in Spring Semester 2019 at the Institute of Education and Research, University of the Punjab as conventional participants whereas, all students (1139) enrolled in the Department of Education, Virtual University of Pakistan as online participants. Sample was selected using random sampling technique. It was found that more than 58.7% of the students had experienced cyber bullying in different forms. Exclusion and Flaming were the two topmost forms of cyberbullying. It was more common among the students of conventional university as compared with their counterparts in the virtual university. Impersonation was the least prevalent form of cyberbullying. No significant differences were observed between the experiences of male and female students.

    Key words: Cyber bullying, Online learning, Conventional learning, Internet, Technology

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    Munawar S. Mirza1, Sameen Azmat2 & Sania Zahra Malik3

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  • Abstract

    The paper addresses the effect of Frayer Model, Choral Response and Muddiest Point on the academic achievement of undergraduate students in this study. This study employed quasi-experimental design. The sample was 87 undergraduates who were already divided into two groups that were later named as experimental group and control group by using fishbowl method. Before starting the experiment, pretest of both the groups was taken to check either both groups are at same level or not. After pretest, treatment was applied in different timeframes for the period of sixteen weeks and then they were post tested. Pretest and posttest of both the groups were same that were developed by observing basic rules and guidelines of test development. The tests were validated by five experts in the field of assessment and curriculum development. The reliability was ensured by psychometric analysis after administering these on 200 undergraduate students. Paired sample t-test was applied to investigate the effect of assessment methods on students’ achievement. Independent sample t-test was applied in order to compare two groups, one that was given the treatment and the other was not given any treatment. The results of the study explored that the mean achievement scores of Muddiest Point was greater than the other two methods of assessment i.e. Frayer Model and Choral Response.

    Key Words: Frayer Model, Choral Response, Muddiest-Point, Academic Achievement

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    Mubashra Akhtar & Muhammad Saeed

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  • Abstract

    School environment – a significant contributor towards students’ learning, consists not only on physical infrastructure but psychological and social factors also. This study was designed to investigate the physical and psychosocial factors of learning environment of government schools. Thirty-six schools from six districts of Punjab province were selected through multi-stage sampling technique. A self-developed questionnaire was used to collect the data. The research instrument was validated and improved in the light of experts’ opinion. The Cronbach’s Alpha value of the instrument was 0.82. More than 800 students of grade IX and X were involved in the study. Using this quantitative data, the study found a relatively positive student-teacher interaction, but the students don’t feel themselves psychologically and physically safe at school. Students are assigned heavy homework and don’t get proper feedback. It was further found that though schools have sufficient learning resources, yet these resources are not properly utilized in enhancing students’ learning. So, it can be concluded that physical, psychological and social aspects of school learning environment are not conducive for learning. The government should improve physical infrastructure of the schools, while students’ social and psychological well-being should be focused in pre-service and in-service teachers’ trainings.

    Keywords: Government schools, Learning environment, Physical environment, Psychosocial environment, student learning

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    Authors

    Syed Nasir Hussain ; Asia Zulfqar & Mubashra Khalid

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  • Abstract

    Self-Directed Learning is the emerging trend in education. This study was based on the meta-analysis of self-directed learning. The purpose of the meta-analysis was to study the trends in recent years and to devise a tool for meta-analysis systematic review. Five years (2013-2018) were taken as sample period for the study. Analysis was made regarding effectiveness of the SDL, factors that contribute in adopting self directed approaches for development of learning domains and finally, the use of ICT as self-directed learning approaches. A largenumber of articles were available during this time period. Three dimension of SDL were focused. The variables were the SDL effectiveness, factors contributing to SDL and the use of ICT in self directed learning. PRISMA technique was utilized for this meta-analysis. In this study each aspect was reviewed using critical lenses on the basis of eight articles. The focus was on the title, objectives, methodology, variablesand its findings and recommendations. The study revealed that in last five years the research on self directed learning focused on the use of ICT and factors contributing self directed learning. Merging of self-directed learning techniques helps to improve the efficiency of learning in digital era.

    Key Word: Self Directed Learning, ICT, Effectiveness, Meta-analysis.

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    Sadia Naz & Muhammad Athar Hussain

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  • Abstract

    This study was designed to measure the effect of head teacher’s effectiveness score on school performance. Head teacher effectiveness is a process of measuring actions or behaviors based on quality performance standards of effective head teacher. School performance is the extent to which school personnel have achieved their short and long term educational goals. Using the multistage sampling technique, 1026 secondary school teachers were surveyed in Sahiwal Division who evaluated the effectiveness of their head teachers through Head Teacher Effectiveness Questionnaire (HTEQ) developed by the researchers based on quality performance standards. The HTEQ which included five factors—Instructional Leadership, School Climate, Teacher Evaluation, Organizational Management, and Communication and Community Relations—demonstrated high level of overall reliability (α=0.88) with factor-wise reliability range from 0.77 to 0.85. School performance data were collected through monthly visit reports of Monitoring and Evaluation Assistants (MEAs) on factors such as Teacher Presence, Student Presence, Functioning of Facilities, School Cleanliness; and Student Achievement scores were collected from respective schools. The study found moderate positive relationship between head teacher’s effectiveness scores and school performance (r=.59). The findings of the study revealed that head teacher’s effectiveness significantly combined to predict school performance, explaining 36% of the observed variance in school performance. The study provided initial evidence of the validity of the HTEQ. The limitations and recommendations have also been suggested in the study. 

    Keywords: Head teacher’s effectiveness; instructional leadership; school climate; teacher evaluation; organizational management; communication and community relations; school performance

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    Muhammad Irfan Malik & Muhammad Akram

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  • Abstract

    The Jomtien Conference on Education for All in Thailand (1990) identified many important educational areas needing addressed: language, numeracy, problem solving, basic knowledge, skills, values and attitudes. Early years education can be seen as laying the foundation for later development. The objectives of the research are to explore how Pre-primary teachers understood the nature of quality in early years education and how they saw their own teaching and the external constraints placed on them in relation to quality. 60 head teachers and 180 pre-primary teachers completed questionnaires (franchised schools) in Lahore at Early Childhood Education level. The questionnaires employed multiple formats: semantic differential, situational set format and open questions. Principal components analysis was applied to the questions but only with the semantic differential items was a factor structure observed. This suggested that there were three key aspects to quality as seen by both teachers and head teachers: the place of play and enjoyment unrestricted by imposed curriculum demands; the freedom to develop rich learning experiences without always thinking of the needs of the next stage (primary education); the need to take responsibility and to set their own standards to ensure quality. Statistically significant differences were observed between the response patterns of teachers and head teacher but much related to the greater experience of head teachers.

    Key Words: Early Childhood Education, Pre-primary teachers, quality education, factors encouraging quality.

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    Asma Alvi, Muhammad Asif & Norman Reid

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  • Abstract

    The targets of quality education can be achieved through the efficient and trained workforce responsible for delivery of education. The study was conducted to investigate the impact of induction training on pedagogical skills and classroom practices of elementary school teachers in Punjab. Twenty teachers who were inducted in 2018 and gone through induction training were selected through convenience sampling to participate in this study. An observational protocol was developed to observe them teaching in their real time classrooms. Descriptive data indicated that newly inducted teachers didn’t show significant improvement in the pedagogical skills and classroom practices due to their participation induction level training. The skills, if any, they are applying are being used unknowingly and with least effect on the students. So, it can be concluded that the induction trainings offered by QAED have no greater impact on improving pedagogical skills of the newly inducted teachers. It is strongly recommended that these teachers should be followed by the training academy for first few years so that the impact of induction trainings can be made visibly significant.

    Keywords: Effectiveness, Induction training, Teaching and learning, Pedagogical skills

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    Adila Khanam & Intzar Hussain Butt

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  • Abstract

    At present Pakistan is facing many challenges like poverty, power crisis, pollution, population explosion, economy crisis etc. However, illiteracy is one of the most important issue and also a determining factor in the stunted growth of democracy in Pakistan. This research paper attempts to find out the correlation between education and democracy, in other words the dynamic relationship that exists between the literacy rate of a country and the establishment of democracy in the country. The core findings of this article are that the ingredient of education is of prime importance and thus, cannot be separated from the recipe of democracy. The developed nations worked out a system that suited their needs, sure they learned via getting experience from experimenting, but the times have changed and in present times the international arena has become more complex and survival has become more complicated, therefore the developing nations cannot afford to experiment, thus education is the shortest route to achieve good governance by practicing democratic norms in true sense. But democracy can flourish and be a success in a society even if the bulk of the masses are not literate because it will gradually teach them the art of citizenship through experience. In case of Pakistan, some reforms need to be done like, change in the education system, promotion of gender equality, investing more on education, need to eradicate sectarianism and religious fanaticism etc. to smoothen the functioning of democracy.

    Key Words: Democracy, Education, Literacy rate, Pseudo-democracy

     

     

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    Ghulam Mustafa , Muhammad Nawaz & Fatima Khan

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  • Abstract

    The purpose of the study to analyze the effects of human resource development practices in the faculty development of Pakistani universities. This was a two folded study, i.e. to examine the existing HR practices being applied in higher education institutions of Pakistan for faculty development and to suggest an applicable faculty development model for universities. The study reviewed effect of HR practices i.e. training and development, performance appraisal, and working environment on organizational growth. Data was gathered from 525 faculty members, executive and administrative heads of social sciences departments of randomly selected ten public and ten private sector universities of Punjab. Structural equation modeling was applied to develop a model through AMOS Software version 21. The results of the study reflected that the above-mentioned HR practices positively contribute to faculty development program if implemented in true spirit.

    Keywords: Human resources development, Human resource practices, Faculty development, Pakistani Universities

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    Abdul Shakoor & Muhammad Tahir Khan Farooqi

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  • Abstract

    Parental involvement is essential for child’s successful learning and development of essential skills. They nurture self-regulated behaviors by satisfying the necessary needs of their child. In this study a causal comparative design was used to explore the causal relationship among parental involvement, self-regulated learning and academic achievement of secondary school students. The sample was consisted of 619 students of public and private secondary schools of a metropolitan city of Pakistan selected through multistage probability sampling. Self-developed instruments PII (Parental Involvement Inventory) and ASLI (Academic Self-regulated Learning Inventory) were used to collect respondents’ responses. This study revealed four key parenting dimensions; autonomy support, academic assistance, structure facilitation and relatedness that have stronger considerable effect on academic achievement as well as on self-regulated learning. These parenting dimensions are found to shape students’ attitude for self-regulated learning at home settings that may cause to empower their learning at school and improves their academic grades. It is also found that parents of private secondary school students are more concerned with their Childs’ learning and those students are found more self-regulated and high in their academic affairs. So, there may be parental involvement programs directed in order to ensure parents’ involvement in their child’s learning. School-home relationship be more structured in order to create awareness about how to teach and coach self-regulatory process at home to their children by satisfying their psychological needs to make their learning progress more vibrant.

     Keywords: Parental involvement, Self-regulated learning, Autonomy support, Academic assistance, Structure facilitation, Academic achievement

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    Muhammad Shahid Farooq & Iqra Asim

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  • Abstract

    One of the major problems faced by teacher is that students are not motivated to learn and fail to do class participation. To maintain motivation and tying students’ Cognitive Engagement, individual motivation can be influenced with the help of different motivational strategies. This experimental study (pre-test posttest control group design) was conducted in a public school of Punjab province at elementary level. During experimental study five different motivational strategies (worksheets, puzzles and hands-on activities, encouragement, rewards & punishment) were used to cover the content from the 7th class general science book for a period of 2 months. After the intervention, results of t-test revealed that the strategies used in experimental group engaged students’cognitively and are capable of doing their work with enthusiasm, commitment and keen interest and trying to command mastery over their learning to achieve the highest result; whereas “disengaged students” do their work but without commitment and interest. It was recommended that different types of motivational strategies be introduced in the curriculum of PTTB at primary and elementary level to completely engage the students.

    Key words: Motivational strategies, Student Cognitive Engagement, Science

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    Sidra Aslam , Muhammad Anwer & Muhammad Subhan Yousaf

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  • Abstract

    Throughout history, the third gender identity has always been a taboo and stigma in many societies of the world. This is a genetic condition known as Klinefelter syndrome (KS) caused by the presence of extra chromosomes XXY in the males. Individuals with KS also known as transgender have always been the target of harassment, emotional and sexual abuse, and mockery in Pakistan. This research was aimed to study the barriers perceived by the teachers in the education of individuals with Klinefelter syndrome in Pakistan. The researchers have collected data from 50 teachers of special and regular schools in Punjab Pakistan through a self-developed structured questionnaire. The Cronbach’s Alpha value for the questionnaire was 0.7 which is considered acceptable and in this case, the reliability of the scale was 0.826 which shows very good internal consistency. The study concluded that one of the major barriers perceived by the teachers is attitudinal barriers, at the next level there were resource barriers and at the third level, there were policy barriers.

    Keywords: Barriers, Education, Klinefelter syndrome, Perceived, Teachers

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    Khushbu Yaseen , Hina Fazil and Rabia Hashmi

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  • Abstract

    The advent of modern technology has augmented the need for its integration in educational processes. The organizational climate plays a significant role in the acceptance and use of technology by academia. This study was conducted to investigate technology acceptance by university teachers and to explore the relationship between organizational climate and technology acceptance. A mixed-method approach using the sequential explanatory design was employed for data collection. The population of the study was the faculty members from different departments of the universities operating on dual-mode education. A sample of 300 teachers was selected by proportionate stratified random sampling technique and 20 teachers from survey participants were selected for the interviews. The validity of the tool was ensured through feedback provided by experts and the reliability of each variable was checked through Cronbach’s alpha. The researcher himself visited the universities for the collection of quantitative as well as qualitative data. It was concluded that male teachers were significantly better in technology acceptance than their female counterparts; a significant strong positive relationship was observed between conducive organizational climate and technology acceptance; a significant weak but positive relationship was found between non-conducive organizational climate and technology acceptance; a significant correlation was found between sub-components of organizational climate and technology acceptance. It is recommended that the female teachers must be imparted training regarding effective use of educational technology for teaching; a conducive climate at HEIs must be maintained to enhance acceptance and use of technology. Annual performance appraisal of teachers must include criteria for acceptance and use of technology by the academia.

    Key Words: Educational Technology, Organizational Climate, Higher Education, Blended Learning, Technology. 

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    Muhammad Irfan Ashraf, Nabi Bux Jumani & Azhar Mehmood

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  • Abstract

    The main objective of the present study was to develop and validate a tool to measure metacognitive abilities among prospective teachers called Prospective Teachers’ Metacognitive Abilities Questionnaire (PTMAQ) with three sub-dimensions: Cognitive Strategies Use (CSU), Self-Regulation (SR), and Cognitive Self-Consciousness (CSC). The initial draft, comprising of thirty-five (35) items, was pilot tested on 244 prospective teachers enrolled in B. Ed and M.A. Education of a national university of Pakistan. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was ensured through SPSS version-24 with factor loading less than 0.5 unloaded items were deleted from the tool. Moreover, Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was also ensured to make the model fit, through AMOS software. The results of the test affirmed that the model is a valid and reliable; reduced to fourteen (14) items with α =0.784, out of which four (4) items retained for the Cognitive Strategies Use (CSU) with α =0.615, five (5) items for the Self-Regulation (SR) with α =0.742, and five (5) items retained for the Cognitive Self-Consciousness (CSC) with α =0.747. The results thus provided evidence to use Prospective Teachers’ Metacognitive Abilities Questionnaire (PTMAQ) to identify and measure metacognitive abilities among prospective teachers.

    Keywords: Prospective Teachers; Metacognitive Abilities; Cognitive Strategies Use; Self-Regulation; Cognitive Self-Consciousness

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    Azmat Farooq Ahmad Khurram , Mobeen ul Islam & Ahmad Bilal

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  • Abstract

    The purpose behind this correlational study was to establish the relationship between students’ learning styles and two of the personality traits i.e. conscientiousness and neuroticism. For this research, the population consisted of all the public university students from province of the Punjab. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 1,000 students from 10 universities of Punjab. ‘NEO-BFI’ developed by Costa & McCrae in 2010 (having 44-items for measuring personality traits) and LSI developed in 2005 by Kolb & Kolb (consisting of 10 factors for measuring learning styles) were used simultaneously to collect the required data. Both these instruments were standardized. Pearson correlation was applied for analyzing the data to find out the relationship between styles of learning and traits of personality. The study concluded that conscientiousness trait of personality was strongly correlated with the assimilating, accommodating and converging styles of learning and neuroticism trait of personality was strongly related with the diverging and accommodating styles of learning.

    Keywords: personality traits, conscientiousness, neuroticism, learning styles, higher education

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    Hina Akbar , Hafiza Gulnaz Fatima and Namirah Aslam

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  • Abstract

    Epistemological beliefs about Mathematics are associated with students’ cognitive performances and effective responses. This study aims to investigate the epistemological beliefs of students about the Mathematics curriculum and their relationship with academic achievement. In this study, a quantitative research approach through the correlational method was used. 600 students from 20 public secondary schools of the Lahore District were selected through two-stage random sampling. Conceptions of Mathematics Inventory were adapted after ensuring its validity and reliability in our local context. The reliability of the inventory was α = 0.917. It was found that secondary school students had sophisticated epistemological beliefs about Mathematics curriculum beliefs about formulas; which are significant in Mathematics as they represent useful ideas and are based on the certainty of knowledge. Moreover, students’ epistemological beliefs were positively correlated with their Mathematics academic achievements. It is recommended that teachers may try to recognize the Mathematics epistemological beliefs of students as they commence a new session of classes and take care of appropriate instructions that enhance students’ Mathematics epistemological beliefs.

    Keywords: Academic Achievements, Epistemological Beliefs, Mathematics, Secondary School Students 

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    Almas Shoaib , Mumtaz Akhtar & Fauzia Naheed

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  • Abstract

    Violence occurred in the schools is perpetrated by teachers, peers, non-teaching members of the schools and senior school fellows. Persons with hearing impairment lacks in hearing due to problems in auditory pathway. It has increased the risk of school violence due to effects of limited hearing and inability to communicate. This qualitative research study was carried out with the objectives of exploring the influence of school ferocity on the health and psychology of the adolescent hearing impaired girls. The sample of present research comprised of hearing impaired girls getting education in the schools of Punjab from grade 8 to 10. A total number of 17 adolescent girls with hearing problems were taken from 7 schools of three populous cities of Punjab. All of the girls who were selected as participants had been experienced any type of school violence in school timings and having record of any physical or mental illness and who were willing to be the part of this research. Based on literature review, an interview protocol was formulated as tool of the study. It is used after validation through piloting to conduct the in-depth interviews from the victimized girls to get insight into their health and psychological problems. On the basis of interviews, it was found that headache, stretching of muscles, pain in different body parts, stomach problems, disturbance in menstrual cycle emerged as major health problems. Anxiety, depression, isolation and insomnia were major psychological problems reported by the victimized girls. The empowerment of adolescent girls with hearing impairment is recommended to uplift their life by raising their power of speech against school violence.

    Keywords: Psychology, health, school violence, adolescent girls with hearing impairment

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    Samina Ashraf , Ghulam Fatima and Herman Shah Bin Anuar

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  • Abstract

    The present paper investigates higher secondary schools school managers’ competence and practices in the contexts of Instructional Leadership (IL). This study was descriptive and survey research method was used for data collection. Population of the study consisted of school managers of higher secondary schools located in Rawalpindi (Pakistan). Researchers used “Instructional Leadership Inventory” (ILI) for data collection from respondents. The findings of the study detected significant differences among school mangers with certain variations, regarding IL competence. Male school managers were found better than female school mangers in IL competence. No gender differences were found among school leaders regarding practices of IL. Public and rural sector school managers were found more competent in IL competence than private and urban sector school managers, but in practice of IL, all school managers were found similar. It was concluded that school managers have instructional leadership competence with certain variations, but in IL practices there were found similar. There are implication of instructional leadership in the changing paradigm of education towards the effective role of heads as an instructional leader. Key Words: school managers, instructional leadership, secondary schools

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    Uzma Sagheer Janjua , Sufiana Khatoon Malik and Batool Atta

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  • Abstract

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms are helping everyday life ranging from simplistic procedures such as self-service checkouts to the complexities of dispensing correct medication to patients. Likewise, AI is helping the education sector in unprecedented ways. Today AI is being used from simple online delivery of teaching through to the creation of virtual assistants and complex data analytics. However, AI related incidents, such as the recent failure of Zoom to prevent posting of obscene images and controversy over AI predicted A-level grades in England, reveal the vulnerability of AI programmes. These failures evidence that AI algorithms may behave contrary to the expectations of developers. Such incidents have caused concern about the reliability of AI, which has also been criticised as being unethical. With the help of various examples of the use of AI in the education sector as well as in everyday life, this article addresses the trust issues arising out the use of AI in teaching and learning. Are concerns about AI over exaggerated? Is this lack of trust due to misconceptions about AI systems? This article argues that although more needs to be done to make AI algorithms safer and reliable to overcome the existing misconceptions and lack of trust, the AI technology is developing very fast and already proving to be very useful in many areas of science and knowledge. The research concludes that AI should be trusted because by restricting its growth, it is likely to constrain our growth as a species.

    Key Words: Technology enhanced learning, Teaching and learning, Artificial intelligence, Social concerns, Misuse, Reliability, Trust, Human Development

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    Hummd Ghouri & Ahmad Ghouri

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  • Abstract

    Legal profession has become the art of ‘dropouts’ (khan 2012). In recent past law schools have been unable to deliver quality education (Osama 2014). The study was determined to measure the pressures and impacts of Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity and Ambiguity (VUCA) on legal education in Pakistan. The study develops insight and understanding of overall context in the VUCA environment and its impacts on stakeholders in legal education. The result of the study explains the benchmark for stakeholders in legal education to combat the challenges and achieve their ultimate goals.

    Key Words: VUCA in Education, Legal education stakeholders, professional challenges.

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    Salman Sarwar , Muhammad Mumtaz Ali Khan & Imran Alam

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  • Abstract

    Although several studies have focused on conflict resolution, none of them has considered the effect of intragroup conflicts on self-determination and self-confidence of university students. The nature of study was descriptive type. The data were collected through multistage random sampling technique. The sample consisted of 386 students of 6 universities of Punjab. Structural Equation Model was developed by applying AMOS 21. Findings revealed that intragroup conflict had a positive effect on students’ selfconfidence and self-determination. Results of the study have a suggestion to implement strategies to create harmony within the group to promote self-determination and selfconfidence.

    Key Words: Conflict, Intragroup Conflict, Self-determination, self-confidence

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    Bilal Ahmad Faridee , Muhammad Tahir Khan Farooqi & Zubair Ahmad Shah

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  • Abstract

    A man’s personality and his habits play an integral role towards his personal and professional success. Many individuals succeed due to their persona and how they treat and behave with others. Introversion and extroversion are the two major personality traits usually found in humans. This study provides an exploratory analysis of the two different types of personality traits: introversion and extroversion among the professionals of private educational institutions of Karachi. The study used qualitative research approach using semi structured interviewing technique to collect the data. The data was collected from the heads of these institutions and it was analyzed using thematic analysis. The results show that both introverted and extroverted people can work collaboratively in an organization by putting the best of their abilities and strength to ensure the prosperity of the organization. Both perform their work by abiding by the set of rules and regulations formed by the executive management to achieve the common goals. The findings also reveal that extroverts have a higher success ratio than introverts due to their expressive communication skills. The need for achievement is high for both extroverts and introverts because both have a strong desire for growth. Recommendations include allowing flexibility to the workforce to ensure that everyone works in the best possible way according to their own personality traits.

    Key Words:1. Introversion, 2.Extroversion, 3. Success, 4.Communication Skills

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    Farhan Uddin Raja , Naeem Akhtar , Syed Qaiser Hussain

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  • Abstract

    This study had been designed to explore the research difficulties faced by MS/M.Phil students in conducting research and its effect on their research attitude. A sample of 165 research students enrolled in MS/ M.Phil program in University of Sindh. Sample was drawn through simple random sampling technique. Two data collection tools were employed; first scale was developed to explore research difficulties faced by studentresearchers and second tool was adopted from Elena C. Papanastasiou (2005) “Attitude Towards Research” (ATR) to study the student-researchers’ research attitude. The results showed that MS/M.Phil students face a range of difficulties when conducting research. They face more administrative difficulties (M= 5.20) than personal difficulties (M= 4.98). The results also showed that students had positive attitudes in two factors; research usefulness (M= 5.61) and general attitude towards research (M= 5.45) and they had negative attitude on other factors; research anxiety (M= 4.98) and research difficulty (M= 4.54) factors. Likewise a moderate positive correlation was found between the research difficulties and the each factors of research attitude. Regression was also used to estimate the impact of research difficulties on research attitude of students; personal difficulties had a week impact on student’s research attitude (β =.233, P <.002) whereas administrative difficulties had higher impact (β =.348, P <.00001) on student’s research attitude. Thus, it can be concluded that research difficulties faced by students cause to change their research attitude.

    Keywords: Research, Attitude, Impact, personal and administrative factors

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    Zain ul Abdin Rind1 & Amjad Ali Arain2

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  • Abstract

    The present study was established to find out the impact of peer relationships on the self-concept of the student with special need. The self-made questionnaire was developed to investigate the general perception of teachers about peer relationships in southern Punjab. All items were constructed while keeping in view all domains of self-concept, self-esteem, role performance, identity, and body image impact on child social abilities. The study focused on exploring the impact of peer relationships that is helpful, to develop high self-concept, increase the academic achievement of learners with special need. The present research study was conducted in 6 districts of southern Punjab schools and centers involving 101 teachers from the special education department as participants. This research study was quantitative.  Questionnaires were developed and approved by experts in the field of special education. The participant’ responses were analyzed to infer conclusions. The results of the study support our claims that it is very necessary to have strong peer relations to improve the self-concept of special needs child and it can academically beneficial for them. The research suggests that teachers should be involved in building a good relationship with special need child so, they can achieve good social and academics outs in a better way.

    Keywords: Peer relationship, self-concept, multiple disabilities, teacher perception, self-image, body image, self-identity, role performance.

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    Authors

    Muhammad Javed Aftab , Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal , Navid Ur Rehman & Rabea Sani

  • Volume : 8 Issue : Issue 1 Year: 2021 Publish Date: 2021-06-30

    Research Supervisors’ Beliefs and Practices related to Supervision

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  • Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to explore research supervisors’ beliefs and practices related to supervisory support provided to research students at MPhil and PhD level. This study used a qualitative case study research methodology. The study was delimited to four Social Science departments (related to Education, Psychology, Sociology, and History) in a public university in Pakistan. All supervisors of the selected departments were invited to participate in this study. Through purposive sampling technique, ten research supervisors from the selected departments were recruited as a sample for the study. Lee’s (2008) framework—based on five approaches to supervision related to supervision, namely, functional, enculturation, critical thinking, emancipation, and relationship development—was used to develop a semi-structured interview guide and subsequently analyse the interview data. In-depth interviews were conducted to collect data from the supervisors. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with willing participants at the mutually agreed time and place. All interviews were audio-recorded with the permission of the participants, and the audio recordings were used to transcribe interview data into transcripts. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse transcripts. Findings show that most of the supervisors’ understanding of the supervisory support were closely related to the five conceptions of supervision. Not all supervisors use all the approaches to supervision. Workshops related to the supervisory support should be arranged using national and international experts in order to make the supervisory practices of supervisors more effective.

    Keywords: Supervision; public university; content analysis; case study

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    Aqsa Zafar , Yaar Muhammad & Faisal Anis

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  • Abstract

    The current research aimed to design a scale to measure teacher educators’ conceptions regarding sustainable development. A systematic review of the relevant literature was conducted to generate and operationalize the initial item pool. Initially, the quantitative scale consists of 54 items in total covering the following four dimensions i.e. environmental, social, economic and moral. After the expert opinion 10 redundant and ambiguous items were deleted from the tool. A total of 44 items were finalized for the scale under four domains with thirteen items under social dimensions, 10 items under economic and environmental dimensions and eleven items under moral dimensions. Through a survey, the scale was administered to 60 teacher educators chosen from 3 public sector teacher education departments of Punjab. The validity and reliability of the scale was statistically tested by computing confirmatory factor analysis and reliability analysis. The values of factor loading were between .973 to 0.512. A total of 07 items were dropped from the pooled items resulting in the retention of 37 items on the final version. The final scale indicates adequate reliability and validity across four dimensions of sustainable development. Theoretically, this scale contributes significantly to the identification of moral dimension of sustainability. The scale for teacher educators’ conception regarding education for sustainable development could be a useful for understanding the ways in which teacher educators think about sustainability and could be useful to investigate the relationship between sustainable development conceptions and other variables.

    Key Words: Scale, Conception, Sustainable development, four dimensions, Education for sustainable development, Teacher educators.

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    Authors

    Madiha Khadim , Naima Qureshi2 & Ayaz Muhammad Khan3

  • Volume : 8 Issue : Issue 1 Year: 2021 Publish Date: 2021-06-30

    Ascertaining the Upshot of Supervision and Visit Report on Teachers’ Efficiency

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  • Abstract

    Supervision is akin to the process of meta-evaluation for the improvement of educational process and it is also used to monitor teachers’ performance in public schools. As figure of public schools is increasing day by day, it is evident that multiple approaches such as mentoring, inspection, supervision and monitoring are being employed by administration to handle the problems of school personnel for example, teachers’ absentees, missing approach of professionalism, depletion in teaching quality, to strengthen the performance, competence of educators and to boost the quality of public schools. The main consideration of this study is just a supervision, which is acknowledged as an administrative tool of assessment and accountability use to sustain and uplift the performance of teachers in school. The core objective of this study is “to analyze the impact of supervision and visit report on teachers’ efficiency”. Simple random sampling technique was used in selecting 371 teachers of secondary schools from tehsil Bahawalpur. The scholar gathered teachers’ feedback about “the impact of supervision and visit report” on a self-designed questionnaire, of five points Likert scale. Meanwhile teachers’ responses were also gathered by inducing two open ended questions about strength and weaknesses of supervision. The reliability of the research tool was 0.915, which was measured by using Cronbach alpha. The mean scores and measures of dispersion were calculated using SPSS, version 17. The independent sample t-test and One-way ANOVA was applied to analyze the data. According to findings supervision can help teachers to develop professionalism. The teaching style can be improved if supervisor uses the technique of motivation while there may be create certain questions/issues on visit report and supervision if used non-professionally.

    Keywords: supervision, visit report, accountability, quality

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    Muhammad Ramzan & Anfa Tabassum

  • Volume : 8 Issue : Issue 1 Year: 2021 Publish Date: 2021-06-30

    Influence of perfectionism and academic motivation on academic procrastination among students

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  • Abstract

    Academic procrastination is defined as postponing academic duties and abandoning academic tasks in such a way that academic failure, unhappiness, and stress result. Perfectionism is referred to as deciding of purposes and goals that causes an individual to experience negative opinions. Adaptive perfectionism is associated with getting good marks on tests for academic achievement, but maladaptive perfectionism is not correctly associated with academic achievement. In other words, maladaptive perfectionism can cause academic procrastination among students. Individuals who possess perfectionism enforce high standards illogically upon themselves and express procrastination. In academia, motivation is defined as an internal process that used to activate and sustain activities for achieving specific academic targets and goals. Motivation as intrinsic or extrinsic has an impact on procrastination among students. With this background, the present study was conducted to find the influence of perfectionism and academic motivation on academic procrastination among students. The sample was comprised of 250 respondents randomly selected from well reputed and high ranked universities of the province of Punjab. Three well-structured instruments were used for data collection: Frost’s Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Procrastination Assessment Scale-Student and Academic Motivation Scale, College 28. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the data collected to derive conclusions and formulate recommendations. Findings of the study showed a strong positive correlation between perfectionism, procrastination, and academic motivation. Items of all the mentioned scales were highly consistent. Procrastination, motivation and its subcategories also depicted no variation on the basis of gender. Motivation had an impact on procrastination, but perfectionism did not reveal any impact on procrastination among students. It was recommended that instructors concentrate on appropriate strategies for lowering the decimal of procrastination. They should develop motivational tools and help students to formulate their future goals in order to cope with academic responsibilities. Conducting seminars and other educational activities could be a better alternative opportunity for improving level of personal development of students.

    Keywords: Perfectionism, Procrastination, Academic Motivation

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    Authors

    Sobia Naz , Gulfam Hassan , Muhammad Luqman

  • Volume : 8 Issue : Issue 1 Year: 2021 Publish Date: 2021-06-30

    A Critical Review of Physical Violence among Secondary School Students in Pakistan

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  • Abstract

    Physical violence among students has been mostly observed in school students. Physical violence experiences among students affect badly on the emotional and psychological health of students. Physical violent activities including slapping have also been found among the school educators and students. The paper explores the nature of physical violence and its effects on school schools. The paper provides a pathway to policy makers to revise the school policy in the lights of in nature of physical violence and its effects. Unstructured interview was used as a tool of research. School educators and students were included in the sample of study. Purposive sampling technique was used in the selection of respondents. The data were collected personally by the researcher. The participants of study agreed that physical violence among students is threat for the school safety. The study concluded that physical violence among the secondary school students exist in the form of peer fighting and intergroup fighting. Slapping has been observed commonly among the students during recess timing of schools. The study recommends that school education policy should be clear about the physical violence among the students. School educators should be trained concerning the nature of physical violence among students.

    Keywords: Physical, Violence, Safety, School, Secondary School Students

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    Authors

    Muhammad Nasir Khan & Sufi Amin

  • Volume : 8 Issue : Issue 1 Year: 2021 Publish Date: 2021-06-30

    Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Performance of Secondary School Students

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  • Abstract

    Student, family and school related factors contribute for the academic performance of students at secondary school level. Self-regulated learners get ready to face educational challenges and have potential to solve their problems on their own. They try their best to achieve mastery on learning goals by self-motivation, self-directedness and self-evaluation. A causal comparative research design was used to investigate the effect of self-regulated learning (SRL) on secondary school students’ academic performance. Private and public sector secondary school students (N=1098) were targeted for collection of data through multistage probability sampling technique. ASLI (Academic Self-regulated Learning Inventory) was used to amass students’ responses for using SRL strategies. Results showed that all phases of self-regulated learning process have considerable effect on academic achievement of secondary school students. Private school students were more invigorating in their self-regulated learning process and tend to have higher grades than public school students. Secondary school educators and policymakers may be more active in introducing SRL strategies to students so that they may adopt such practices and progress in learning.

    Key words: self-regulated learning, secondary school graders, academic attainments, academic performance, self-motivation, self-directedness

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    Authors

    Iqra Asim & Muhammad Shahid Farooq

  • Volume : 8 Issue : Issue 1 Year: 2021 Publish Date: 2021-06-30

    Pedagogical Techniques Used by ELT Teachers to Develop Reading Skills at Secondary Level

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  • Abstract

    The present study focuses on investigating pedagogical techniques in relation to developing reading skills at secondary level in the schools of Jaranwala. The researchers have selected the area of reading skills as it is esteemed as mother of all skills. As students learn to pronounce and use new words and the input increases, students can improve other related skills writing and speaking skills. The contextual use of words can evoke an image in the mind of the reader and pave the way for better understanding of the word usage and its definitions rather than mere factual information of a dictionary. The researchers have been teaching English for more than five years and observed that most of the students feel difficulty in reading even after being promoted to the secondary classes. In this vein, an investigation of the students’ failure or unable to read correctly at this stage is an interesting avenue which is relatively less explored. For that purpose, the researchers have formulated a questionnaire to collect data from the language learners. The analysis of the collected data has been carried out by using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) in terms of representation of table of mean, median, mode and standard deviation. The results show that teachers should revise their teaching techniques to improve the reading skills of the students. The present study is significant as it recommends the language teachers to enhance their teaching methodology in the diverse field of ELT.

    Keywords: Pedagogical techniques, Reading skills, ELT, Teaching methodologies

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    Authors

    Ijaz Asghar , Shahid Abbas & Muhammad Ikram

  • Volume : 8 Issue : Issue 1 Year: 2021 Publish Date: 2021-06-30

    Analysis of Peace Education in Social Studies Curriculum at Elementary Level

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  • Abstract

    The subject of Social Studies has a potential to promote national and international development and is vital for peace education. The main purpose of the study was to identify the SLOs of Social Studies curriculum of (2017) regarding peace contents in the context of learning domains and to examine the status of identified peace promoting contents in classroom teaching. All the curriculum experts who were involved in curriculum development process run by Ministry of Education and currently engaged in National Curriculum Council (NCC). All the teachers of Social Studies subject were included in target population. At first phase of the study, one most relevant expert from each category i.e. Curriculum Expert, Subject Specialists and working teachers were selected through purposive sampling. SLOs of Social Studies regarding peace promoting contents were identified and validated from experts. In second phase the sample for schools & teachers were selected according to status of sector wise schools in Federal Directorate of Education (FDE). The collected data of teacher’s responses were organized by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for data analysis. Frequency and percentage were used to interpret the results. It was found that more focus on knowledge level domain and less emphasis on skills and attitude was there. 

    Keywords: Peace Education, Social Studies curriculum, classroom teaching

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    Ume Rubab , M. Imran Yousuf & M. Arshad Dahar

  • Volume : 8 Issue : Issue 1 Year: 2021 Publish Date: 2021-06-30

    Translation and Validation of Urdu Flourishing Scale

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  • Abstract

    The current study translated and validated the Flourishing Scale (FS) in Urdu, by a standardized forward and the backward method. We used 235 male and 339 female undergraduate students (N = 574) from BS (Honours) courses, and used Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to confirm its factor structure. A unidimensional structure with excellent model fit indices was revealed. To assess convergent and discriminatory validies we used Core Self-Evaluation (CSE) scale, which has two subscales namely, Positive Core Self-Evaluation (PCSE) and a Negative Core Self-Evaluation (NCSE). A significant positive correlation (r = .29, p < .001) with PCSE and a significant negative correlation (r = -.18, p < .001) with NCSE were revealed expressing adequate convergent and discriminant validities. In addition, cross-language validation was performed on a separate (N = 60) sample of undergraduate students, which revealed high positive correlation a cross language orders (r > .90) with a high test-retest reliability of a week that revealed excellent temporal stability (r = .90). Urdu translated FS is psychometrically strong and can measure flourishing in Pakistani undergraduate students and adults.

    Keywords: Flourishing Scale (FS), Positive Core Self-Evaluation (PCSE), Negative Core-Self-Evaluation (NCSE), convergent validity, discriminant validity, success, well-being

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    Sadia Niazi, Adnan Adil, Qaisar Abbas & Anum Khan

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  • Abstract

    The current study investigates the prospective teachers’ Pedagogical Technological and Content Knowledge (TPACK). It was aimed to explore: 1) the level of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) of prospective teachers. 2)  and the prospective teachers’ weak and strong areas of TPACK knowledge. The study group consisted of 85 prospective teachers enrolled in B.Ed (Hons) degree programs at Karakoram International University. The survey data was analysed using the SPSS 22 software. Standard deviation and Mean were used to illustrate the level of pre-service teachers regarding various TPACK knowledge domains. Pedagogical Knowledge (PK) of pre-service teachers has the highest score. The Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK) contains the second-highest score. Technological Knowledge (TK) has the third highest value. The Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) has the fourth-highest score. The Content Knowledge (CK) has the second-lowest score, and the Technological Pedagogical & Content Knowledge (TPACK) domain has the lowest score. It is suggested that there should be more courses to improve the teacher’s level of technology integration in relation to content and pedagogy.

    Key words: TPACK, PK, TK, PCK, CK, TPK, Pre-service Teachers, B.Ed (Hons)

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    Ghulam Jalani , Shahzad Hussain2, Naila Amin3 & Dostdar Hussain4

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  • Abstract

    In a fast changing landscape of a globalized world and knowledge-driven economies, producing graduates with multiple competencies is critical as well as challenging for the universities. Given the growing importance of soft skills and their employability prospects, the present study draws on quantitative and qualitative data and examine soft skills of undergraduate students in four public universities of Pakistan. Total 426 students were participants in the survey questionnaire while 25 participated in interviews. Results show that although students’ self-assessment of different soft skill shows high levels quantitatively; however, there still appears a wide gap between policies, classroom practices vis-à-vis achieving soft skills targets. Although the Higher Education Commission Pakistan (HEC) incorporates soft skills in curriculum; however, we find the lack of clear policy direction about integration of soft skills in actual classroom teaching and practices.  Noticeably, vital soft skills such as entrepreneurship and professional ethics are absent from the curriculum.  We observe that without establishing a comprehensive policy framework and integration of soft skills in pedagogies, the graduating students are likely to encounter potential obstacles in finding reasonable jobs. Applying such framework could train students as a sustained and competent human resource, employable in the global economy.

    Keywords: soft skills, employability, Higher Education Pakistan, higher education policies and practices

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    Syed Abdul Manan , Maya Khemlani David & Sham Haidar

  • Volume : 8 Issue : Issue 1 Year: 2021 Publish Date: 2021-06-30

    Identification of Gifted Students: Assumptions and Perceptions of Secondary School Teachers

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  • Abstract

    Identification of gifted students helps to understand the abilities and potential weaknesses of the students. The school administration may use this information to plan interventions and accommodations to manage the emergent demands of gifted students. The main objective of the study was identification of the students’ characteristics that can be used to identify them as gifted students as well as the factors that determine students’ level of intelligence. This is not only a valuable striving but a legal and human right of the student as well. There is no considerable effort prevailing in the public sector school system in Pakistan to acknowledge the needs of talented and gifted children. For this study, a questionnaire was developed on a 4 point rating scale and distributed among 600 Respondents who were selected through random sampling method. The study was an exploration of the stakeholders’ perspectives about the characteristics of gifted students both in academic achievement and co-curricular activities. The study finds out that Secondary School Teachers (SSTs) use both curricular and co-curricular activities to distinguish gifted students however; teachers also suppose that students’ abilities are associated with their examination marks. Identification of gifted students at the right time may prove beneficial for the economy of a country so it is recommended that special arrangements should be taken in the policy for gifted students so that they keep on their track.

    Keywords: Gifted students, Secondary school, Education, Talent

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    Maaz Ahmed Ramey , Tahir Nadeem , & Hafiz Muhammad Ather Khan

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  • Abstract

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of institutional leadership competencies and the opportunities of participatory decision making on the attrition / retention rate of teachers at the secondary level of education in Pakistan. A semi structured questionnaire was used to achieve the purpose of this study. Researchers collected dara with 398 questionnaires distributed in person and through postal service. In addition to this , the researchers use the reflective open-ended responses and the follow up interviews with the teachers and  identified themes through Nvivo 11 software. The responses were evaluated on the basis of three selected variables: teachers' views on the institutional leadership competencies (independent variable), professional and administrative collaboration in the participatory decision-making process (independent variable), and the teachers' retention / attrition (dependent variable), and four indictors were tested, i.e. gender, age, level of education, and the type of institution. Various themes were identified in the data that addressed the selected variables for this study. The study indicated that the leadership competencies and the participatory decision-making opportunities exert many implications on the teachers' retention / attrition, although statistically it was found insignificant on three indicators in both streams: (1) gender, level of education and the type of institutions in the stream namely the effect of leadership competencies on teachers' retention / attrition; and (2) gender, age, and the type of institution in the second stream namely participative decision making and teachers' retention / attrition. The study concluded that positive institutional culture under competent leadership and the opportunities in the administrative and professional participatory decision making may lead to achieve high quality professional standards for the teachers.

    Key Words: Leadership competencies, Participatory Decision making, Teachers' retention/attrition, Secondary Education Pakistan

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    Muhammad Amir Saeed , Sadia Saba , & Saeed Ahmad

  • Volume : 8 Issue : Issue 1 Year: 2021 Publish Date: 2021-06-30

    Early Childhood Education Programme in Punjab: Voices of Teachers & Head Teachers

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  • Abstract

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the facilities and hurdles as experienced by early childhood teachers and head teachers about early childhood education (ECE) programme implemented in the province of Punjab. The researchers carried out the research study by taking enrollment rate, retention rate, implementation problems and shortcomings of the early childhood education programme. The mixed methods approach was used by the researchers to achieve the study objectives. The population of the study was 324 (head teachers and Kachi class teachers) of 162 schools where the ECE program was being implemented in Hafizabad. A sample of 100 (50 head teachers and 50 teachers) was selected through purposive sampling technique. To collect data from the sampled participants, three tools were developed by the researchers i.e. student enrollment and retention sheet, an observation sheet and semi-structured interview protocol.  Coding technique and descriptive statistics for example frequencies and percentages were applied to analyze data. It was found that there was an increase of enrollment in ECE classroom students. All basic facilities were found present in schools that included safe drinking water, furniture, ECE kit, a separate classroom for ECE purpose; problems found during implementation of ECE programme were of financial as well as administrative nature. Recommendations of the study were to provide finances to resolve financial problems and to give continuous trainings to class teachers as well as head teachers regarding ECE classroom activities.

    Key Words: Early Childhood Education (ECE), Enrollment, Retention, Punjab

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    Muhammad Zafar Iqbal , Hassan Arslan Khalid & MubesheraTufail

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  • Abstract

    The main purpose of the study was to identify the level of awareness of women protection laws at the workplace among university teachers in Lahore (Pakistan). A descriptive survey research design was employed in this study. The population is comprised of university teachers of public and private sectors in Lahore— a provincial capital of Pakistan. Using stratified random sampling technique, public universities were considered as one stratum and private universities were taken as other. Randomly, 400 male and female teachers were selected, 200 from public universities and 200 from private universities. The researchers developed a close-ended questionnaire for this research and the same was got validated by experts in the field of assessment and research. The reliability of the pilot study calculated through Cronbach Alpha was 0.84. Data were collected ensuring all ethical considerations. The major finding was that university teachers were significantly aware of women protection laws at the workplace, while female teachers considerably more aware than their male counterparts. Inferential statistics resulted in significant differences on demographic variables. Results of the study might be helpful for future policy decisions on the awareness about these laws.

    Keywords: women protection laws, awareness, workplace, harassment, university teachers.

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    Nauman A. Abdullah , Muhammad Asif Malik & Komal Batool

  • Volume : 8 Issue : Issue 2 Year: 2021 Publish Date: 2021-12-31

    Role of Assistive Technology in the Rehabilitation of Children with Hearing Impairment

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  • Abstract

    Assistive technology plays a vital role in the lives of disable children. Main objective of this paper is to identify the role of assistive technology in the rehabilitation of children with hearing impairment. A self-developed questionnaire was used as a research tool and for the purpose of data collection. Due to the COVID-19 situation the data were collected with the help of google form and through social media platform. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used to analyze the data. It is observed that cochlear implant, FM system, ASR (Automatic Speech Recognition) software, loop induction system, captioning, Telecommunication devices (TDD), TV streamer, remote microphones, notification systems devices, infrared systems and amplified telephones were the frequent assistive technologies used by the children with hearing impairment which are equally helpful for children in acquiring education as well as in daily life activities. It is recommended that the better and more positive results, professional need to be aware with the new technologies and get trained with the positive attitude towards the rehabilitations of children with hearing impairment.

    Keywords: Assistive Technology, Hearings-impaired, Rehabilitation

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    Muhammad Javed Aftab , Muhammad Ashfaq , Robina Naqvi & Kiran Shehzadi

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  • Abstract

    The language is the utmost necessity for the survival of the races. In broader view, language may not be confined to any territory or nation. The main objectives were to explore the opinions of university faculty members in selection of medium of instructions during lectures, indicators responsible for as key motivators and to investigate the academic confidence among university students when they learn through specific medium of instructions. The perceptions from the universities’ faculty members were collected as the use of national and foreign language is most applicable in teaching learning environment. The simple random sampling technique was used for selection of one hundred university teachers from University of Education and GC University Faisalabad. The Self-developed tool, about mediums of instructions and Faculty Preference Survey (MIFPS) was used. The findings of the study showed that faculty members are more willing to use foreign language during their class lectures. They said foreign language is necessary to explain international terminologies while delivering the lectures. Male students were more optimistic to use foreign language as medium of instruction than that of female students. The learners showed positive attitude when national language is used. The male students’ confidence level was high when teachers use national language as medium of instruction as compared to foreign language. Students revealed to be much creative in using national language for learning purpose. It is suggested that both languages should be used at higher educational level to compete internally and the rest of the world.

    Keywords: National language, medium of instructions, confidence building, academia

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    Farah Shafiq , Asif Iqbal & Zahida Javed

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  • Abstract

    One of the major problems in teaching economics is students’ failure to get mastery of economics concepts. To develop conceptual understanding among students dynamic methods of teaching are needed.  Study aimed to provide a method of teaching economics other than traditional method.  Effect of concept attainment model of teaching on college students’ academic achievement level was investigated. The experiment (ABA single subject design) was conducted in a public college of Punjab province. To conduct the experiment lesson plans covering the content from Grade XI economics book were developed and achievement tests were constructed. In baseline, instruction continued through routine instructional method, while in intervention phase, concept attainment strategy was used to teach economics concepts. In withdrawal phase, baseline conditions were reestablished. Results of repeated measures one way analysis of variance revealed that concept attainment teaching strategy is more effective than traditional method to teach economics. It was recommended that new teaching techniques should be included in the curriculum of economics to make the concept attainment easy and interesting.  

    Keywords: Effectiveness, Economics, Concept Attainment, Concept Attainment model

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    Authors

    Zahida Noreen & Abid Hussain Chaudhary

  • Volume : 8 Issue : Issue 2 Year: 2021 Publish Date: 2021-12-31

    Multiple Facets of Parental Involvement and the Homework Performance of Primary Level Students

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  • Abstract

    This study examined the influence of multiple facets of parental involvement on the homework performance of primary school students. The research was quantitative in nature. We used survey method to investigate the influence of different facets of parental involvement on the homework performance of their children with the help of self-constructed questionnaire. We collected data from primary level students (n= 120) and their teachers (n=20) from 10 primary school. Self-constructed Parental Involvement Questionnaire (PIQ, 17 items) was used to collect data from students and Homework Performance Questionnaire (HPQ, items 13) was used to collect data from teachers. Parental involvement was determined with respect to three facets i.e., 1) administrative, 2) emotional and 3) cognitive. Inferential statistics were applied to analyze data. Independent sample t-test was conducted to assess the high and low parental involvement on the homework performance of students which was found significant (p <.05) for the administrative involvement (p=.049) and cognitive involvement (p=.005). The findings indicate the role of parents intellectual and organizational input on the homework performance of their children at primary level.

    Keywords: administrative involvement, emotional involvement, cognitive involvement, homework performance

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    Tooba Saleem & Farkhanda Zaffar

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  • Abstract

    The COVID-19 pandemic started as a health crisis but transformed into a humanitarian crisis within a few weeks. It affected all spheres of life including education and research. COVID-19 driven lockdowns, stay-at-home restriction, social and physical distancing, closure of educational and research facilities posed great challenges for academics students and researchers. This research had been designed to study the effect of COVID-19 pandemic-driven lockdown on research scholars’ efficiency and their mental health. To achieve the objectives of the study data was collected from researchers through Google form. Pearson's chi-square (χ2) test was used to test the hypothesis and the binary splitting technique is applied to make things simple. This study provided sufficient evidence to conclude that researchers faced a range of difficulties during the COVID-19 due to the lockdown. This unexpected situation led to the low efficiency of researchers and it ultimately negatively affected the mental health of both male and female researchers. The application of technology helped researchers to cope with COVID-19 driven challenges up to some extent.

    Keywords: COVID-19, pandemics, researcher, efficiency, mental health, technology

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    Amjad Ali Arain , Abdul Malik Abbasi & Muhammad Zafar Iqbal

  • Volume : 8 Issue : Issue 2 Year: 2021 Publish Date: 2021-12-31

    University Students’ Critical Thinking Skills with Reference to their Age and Gender

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  • Abstract

    The aim of this quantitative study was to survey the critical thinking skills of university students studying at different public universities in Lahore based on their gender and age. The sample was chosen using a multi-stage sampling technique. Data gathered from 475 students enrolled in various semesters at five public universities. Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) was used to assess students’ critical thinking abilities. T-test was employed to evaluate data in order to answer the study questions.  The results of study are evident that variable of age had a small effect on students’ critical thinking skills whereas these skills did not differ regarding their gender. The study is beneficial to further explore the reasons for differences with progression in the age. The policymakers and experts can plan to inculcate curriculum at the lower level of education for the enhancement of critical thinking. The study might also help them to make relevant and desirable changes in curriculum and pedagogy.

    Keywords: University Students, Critical Thinking, Critical Thinking Skills, Age, Gender

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    Soofia Noor , Huma Lodhi & Farah Shafiq

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  • Abstract

    Present study was conducted to find out the effect of analysis activities on English reading comprehension and ability to read English text critically. Pre-test post-test control group design was selected. Sixty students as sample of the study were selected from a public sector college randomly. These sixty students were further divided into two equal groups and were taught continuously for16 weeks. English reading comprehension was measured through an English reading comprehension MCQs test, and students’ ability to read English text critically with a supply type test. Paired samples and Independent samples t-tests were used to analyze the data. The study results revealed that analysis activities were effective for teaching English reading comprehension and enabling students to read English text critically. English teachers should practice analysis activities for teaching English reading comprehension and enabling students to read English text critically. Students of grade XI should experience these activities to improve their English reading comprehension and ability to read English text critically. English teachers should exposed students to experience analysis activities to improve their English reading comprehension and ability to read English text critically.

    Keywords: Analysis Activities, Reading Comprehension, English Language, Reading Text Critically.

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    Authors

    Abdul Rauf & Muhammad Saeed

  • Volume : 8 Issue : Year: 2021 Publish Date: 2021-12-31

    Relationship between Thinking Styles and Academic Achievement

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  • Abstract

    Students differ in the ways that they think about problems and how they learn. Thinking style is the term used to describe the individual differences among students in how they think and learn. This study was designed to determine the relationship between thinking styles and academic achievement of secondary school students. The population in this study consisted of science students at grade 9 from male and female secondary schools of Tehsil Rawalpindi. Random sampling technique was used to select the sample. In the present study, two research instruments were used. The Convergent and Divergent Test was used to identify the thinking styles of the secondary school students and the Achievement Tests of Chemistry were used to identify the academic achievement of the students. The collected data was analyzed to calculate means, T-statistics, and Pearson product-moment correlations. Male students were mostly convergent thinkers and female students were mostly divergent thinkers. The relationship between thinking styles and academic achievement of secondary school students was positive and significant.

    Keywords: Thinking styles, academic achievement, convergent thinking, divergent thinking.

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    Asma Mumtaz , Rahmat Ullah Bhatti & William Bart

  • Volume : 8 Issue : Issue 2 Year: 2021 Publish Date: 2021-12-31

    Development and Validation of Head Teachers’ Effectiveness Questionnaire

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  • Abstract

    The study focused on developing and validating a Head Teachers’ Effectiveness Questionnaire (HTEQ) based on quality indicators. Head teachers’ effectiveness is defined as the expected level of performance of head teacher on standards and it is considered a process of measuring effective qualities or performance standards required by the educational authorities demonstrated by the head teachers in schools. The researchers surveyed 1026 Secondary School Teachers in district Sahiwal by using a multistage sampling technique who perceived the level of effectiveness of their head teachers on the items of HTEQ. The overall reliability of the HTEQ was found to be high (α=0.88) while reliabilities of the five actors ranged between 0.77 to 0.85. The correlations among factors were found significantly moderate ranged from .35 to .59. Further, exploratory factor analysis discovered high internal validity of HTEQ with five factors. Confirmatory factor analysis also revealed that HTEQ provided a good fit model with significant value of χ2, and values of RMSEA, CFI, and GFI also presented a good fit model. The findings of the model evidenced that the HTEQ is a valid, reliable, and useful questionnaire for measuring head teacher effectiveness. In the end, recommendations have also been suggested in the present study. 

    Key word: Head teacher effectiveness; instructional leadership; teacher evaluation; school climate; communication and community relations

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    Authors

    Muhammad Akram & Muhammad Irfan Malik

  • Volume : 8 Issue : Issue 2 Year: 2021 Publish Date: 2021-12-31

    Time Management: Concept, Technique and Impact upon Performance

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  • Abstract

    This paper describes about the concept of time management, the effective techniques of time management and the impact of time management upon performance. It explores several techniques of time management practiced in different situations and different organizations through different samples of population. Effective time management brings focus upon the work and contributes towards productivity. By methodology, it was an extensive literature-review study. Through content analysis of vast literature search, it has been concluded that the term “time management’’ is actually. Time is not an accessible factor. It is about ‘self-management’. Effective time management increases the performances of individuals and organizations. It has been found the Meta analysis of multiple descriptive and empirical studies explaining the effects of time management have been found positive on outcomes, performance and job-satisfaction. The key to successful time management is planning and, then, protecting the planned time. Time management is not only referred to business or modern science. It has its importance in religion, too. The Quran and Hadith strongly declare war against purposeless life. Time management in Islamic perspective concentrates upon maximizing the productivity. Time Management has special strengths in identifying the most productive time spans. It gives practical mechanism for utilizing each moment of life in the most efficient, the most beneficial and the most productive manner. Effective time management brings focus upon the work and contributes towards productivity.  

    Keywords: Time management, time wasters, time savers, self- management, planning, procrastination, conditioning.

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    Saleem Ullah Jundran & Javeria Saleem

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  • Abstract

    Television has been extensively used in educational crusades throughout the world. The purpose of this study is to assess the role of specific campaigns targeted at the Pakistani audience and their effect on parents' motivation and intention to enroll their children in school. Five prominent national cable television channels were chosen, and data on ongoing and previous educational campaigns on these channels were gathered, as well as a questionnaire for conducting a survey of parents. A total of 300 respondents have been chosen for the survey. According to the findings, the majority of parents agree that education is critical for their children's future. Additionally, television-based campaigns provide parents with motivation to invest in their children's education. The majority of parents believe they were influenced more by journalists, government officials, and showbiz celebrities than by the dissemination of material facts and figures, dramatic acts, educational lectures, and other global techniques used in these educational campaigns. Among Chosen channels viewers believe that Duniya News should broadcast more educational content. The majority of respondents preferred ascribed roles to the achieved roles depicted in television campaigns.

    Keywords: Educational Crusades, Parents’ commitments for children education, Motivation through media

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    Authors

    Abdul Rehman Qaisar , Hassan Raza Hashmi & Syed Mubashar Hussain Shah

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  • Abstract

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) experience limitations in motor skills learning and performance. Impact of limitations can be minimized through involvement in Physical Activities (PA) and development of Physical Literacy (PL). The purpose of this study is to search available literature published in last ten years purely based on physical activity interventions to determine current preferences and provide direction for future preferences in designing interventions for children with DCD. Search was made by using three key terms on four databases to explore articles published since 2013 that applied only physical activity interventions to study effect either on physical activity or physical literacy of children with DCD. Screening of available data revealed that there were only 05 studies which met the already defined inclusion criterion. Screening of articles also disclosed absence of interventional researches targeting physical literacy of children with DCD. Since DCD is a motor learning disorder more researches should be based on physical activity and target the same being the core area requiring amelioration. Moreover, a shift from physical activity to physical literacy is also needed as being more appropriate and broader concept for physical learning and growth of children with DCD.

    Keywords: Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), Physical Activity (PA), Physical Literacy (PL)

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    Authors

    Naveed Shahzad & Hafiz Tahir Jameel

  • Volume : 9 Issue : Issue 1 Year: 2022 Publish Date: 2022-06-29

    Issues and Challenges in Online Education and Evaluation Process in Pakistan Driven by Covid-19

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  • Abstract

    Covid-19 came as a bad dream to all the structures of society whether economic, political or social. It threw doubts on the current condition of the systems of society. Education is one of the afflicted sector because the pandemic caused almost a year long closure of the  education system. Many advanced countries had already been incorporating online education in their system in some way but developing nations like Pakistan suffered the most since they were not prepared for this new system of education and evaluation at any phase in the pandemic. From students to teachers, everyone has came across many challenges in acquiring this new system of education. This paper aims at analysing those challenges of online education and changed evaluation system in Pakistan during the Covid-19 period and put forwarded some structured solutions on how to manage these changes for the future in the case that a new calamity arises.

    Keywords: Challenges, Online Education, Evaluation, Covid-19, Pakistan

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    Authors

    Muhammad Sajid Khan & Mehak

  • Volume : 9 Issue : Issue 1 Year: 2022 Publish Date: 2022-06-29

    Online Classes and Parents of Private School Students: An Exploration of Challenges

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  • Abstract

    The situation of COVID-19 and online classes made parents a bit panic. This paper aims to identify the challenges faced by the parents of students studying in private sector schools during online classes. The current research was an effort to explore the situation and challenges that parents faced during the pandemic regarding online classes. It is an exploratory qualitative research under the shade of interpretive paradigm. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview protocol consisting of an open ended question and some probing questions. Parents of students (36 respondents) from Grade I-VIII were selected for the interviews. The study was delimited to only those parents whose children were receiving online classes for more than two months. Data collected from interviews were analyzed by using thematic analysis technique. The themes extracted from responses of parents are: stress level, financial and technical constraints, time management and rejection. The results show that the availability of the gadgets and online access were serious challenges for the parents. Parents were unable to contribute to online classes of their children smoothly due to other allied prerequisites. It is recommended that the awareness and readiness to meet such situations may be made available for masses. 

    Key words: COVID-19, online classes, ICT usage, private schools, online access, parents and challenges.

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    Authors

    Mamoona Riasat & Muhammad Shahid Farooq

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  • Abstract

    The running era is called digital age because of the large appearance of digital technology which seeks education enables students to be successful in their lives and workplace. Twenty first century skill frameworks are to be considered as a key driver for success, however, its implementation needs reforms and because of economic uncertainty most of the developing countries including Pakistan unable to do so. Therefore, this research project was initiated to reach a resized skill framework that is compatible with the digital age by determining the gap between theory and practice. The gap was explored by examining the difference between the acquired level of skills being imparted in teacher education programs and the required level of skills needed for success in the workplace. Data were collected through a survey of in-service teachers’ feedback with the help of a self-developed questionnaire. The average mean score of required skills was found high as compared to acquired, which indicates a gap between the skills being imparted on-campus learning (theory) and the need of the workplace (Practice). The gap may be bridged through the integration of digital-age century skills into the curriculum and instruction of teacher education programs resultantly teacher educators would be able to develop digital-age century skills into prospective teachers.

    Keywords: Teacher education, 21st century skills frameworks, theory and practice

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    Authors

    Muhammad Nadeem Anwar & Sung-Sang Yoo

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  • Abstract

    The developmental period of the African science curriculum has principally viewed Science Process Skills (SPS) as a major outcome. However, the scarcity of review regarding the African studies in SPS points to a crucial gap in the related literature. This warrants the need to review research articles on SPS thereby identifying common findings and distinguishable trends. Therefore, this review aimed to analyze and evaluate research studies conducted on science process skills in the context of African countries. The method carried out in this research was a systematic literature review. It involved analyzing and synthesizing studies that focused on science process skills in the African science education from 2002 to 2021. The researchers obtained 106 articles in the initial searching activity. Then, they screened out the abstract of these articles to determine their relevance. From this screening process, 34 SPS studies in different African countries published from 2002 to 2021 were synthesized and analyzed. The review of research trends on SPS-related issues conducted in African countries focused on the following points: contributor African countries, main SPS-related issues discovered by the studies, and the methodologies used by the researchers. Based on the result of this review, the top three SPS-related issues identified were; determining variables affecting SPS (23.52%), developing science curriculum via SPS (17.64%), and developing students’ and teachers’ SPS (17.64%). The results also revealed that most articles were contributed from Nigeria (44.11%) and the most frequently used research design and methods were quantitative research design (58.82%) by quasi-experiment, survey, and ex-post-facto methods. The most frequently used data collection tools were achievement tests (45.71%) and document analysis (31.42%), and the most frequently used samples were the students at high schools (65.71%). Since science curriculum plays a vital role in improving students’ SPS, the results of studies under investigation suggested that curriculum developers may increase the number of science activities when developing science curriculums. 

    Keywords: African continent, science education, science process skills, students, teachers

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    Authors

    Million Tadesse , Destaw Damtie & Yenus Nurie Bogale

  • Volume : 9 Issue : Issue 1 Year: 2022 Publish Date: 2022-06-29

    Pedagogy: A Comparative Study of Western and Islamic Stance Thereof

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  • Abstract

    This article primarily deals with the major characteristics and attributes of Western and Islamic pedagogical systems and the prominent differences thereof regarding the main five components of pedagogy i.e. pedagogical objectives, pedagogical principles, pedagogical management, pedagogical methods, pedagogical assessment. Islam being the last message of Allah Almighty towards humanity has its own particular system of pedagogy variously illustrated in the pages of the Glorious Quran and the Hadiths of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). Owing to its peculiar and sui generis system, Islam occupies a distinguished place in the compendium of the educational systems of the world. In this way, it stands diametrically different from its counterpart in its objectives, principles and assessments etc. Similarly, both the pedagogical systems differ in pedagogic methods and management tools, too. Hence, this paper endeavoured to compare and contrast Islamic and Western pedagogical systems by keeping in view the above mentioned pentad differences in particular an; hence showing the cause of preferment of one pedagogical system to the other.

    Key Words: Allah Almighty, Pedagogy, Islamic, Western, Quran, Hadith.

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    Authors

    Ghulam Sarwar Butt , Muhammad Naveed Khalid & Farah Shafiq

  • Volume : 9 Issue : Issue 1 Year: 2022 Publish Date: 2022-06-29

    ONLINE AND ACTIVE LEARNING DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

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  • Abstract

    A mixed-method research was designed for gaining insight regarding how comparative study was addressed between online and active learning, during COVID-19 pandemic, in public universities of Lahore, Pakistan.  Identifying the issues faced by the students and teachers during this pandemic was the main purpose for designing this study. Convenient sampling technique was used by the researchers to select sample of the study: 210 participants in total, 200 students and 10 teachers from 4 public universities in Lahore. The data for this study was collected through standardized questionnaires and conducting (recorded) interviews. A significant difference was recorded between the online and active learning because of the problems that directly influenced students’ learning and teachers’ teaching.   

    Key words: Online Learning, Active Learning, Pandemic COVID-19.

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    Authors

    Namirah Aslam , Hina Akbar & Hafiza Gulnaz Fatima

  • Volume : 9 Issue : Issue 1 Year: 2022 Publish Date: 2022-06-29

    Exploring Secondary School Teachers' Work-Related Depression, Anxiety and Irritation

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  • Abstract

    Teachers’ workload and official responsibilities affect their classroom behavior along with their teaching performance. The major purport of the study wasto explore secondary school teachers’ work-related depression, anxiety,and irritation.The population of the study constituted of secondary school teachers from fourconveniently selected districts of Punjab. The researcher adopteda questionnaire to collect data about work-related depression, anxiety, and irritation faced by secondary school teachers. The results revealed that work-related depression, anxiety, and irritation regarding qualifications are not significantly different among respondents. It was concluded that respondents were not significantly different in their work-related depression and anxiety in four levels of teaching.

    Keywords: Teachers' work-related environment, Depression, Anxiety, Irritation

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    Authors

    Muhammad Tahir Khan Farooqi , Khalid Saleem Kiran Farzand & Abdul Shakoor

  • Volume : 9 Issue : Issue 1 Year: 2022 Publish Date: 2022-06-29

    Social Media is a Blessing or Curse: Impact of Social Media Usage on Students’ Education

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  • Abstract

    This study explores the "impact of social media usage on students' education. Students used social media to create content and buildup relationships with other community members for educational purposes. Information was gathered to determine whether or not social media is a blessing or a curse. A survey method was used to collect data. The population/universe was students whom they were using social media for different purposes like education. A stratified sampling technique was applied for data collection. These strata were based on male and female and Master and BS level programs; 160 students were selected in the sample. The results were that there was a significant association and (at the 0.01 level) positive relationship between academic performance and time spent while students were using social media for academic purposes. The study further explained a strong and positive association between the respondents' usage of social media platforms and their overall academic performance; the hypotheses regarding the amount of spending time using social media sites and the relationship between using social media and academic achievement demonstrated a significant and strong positive correlation between the two" factors.

    Keywords: Social media, Education, Survey, Students, University, Research Direction

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    Authors

    Faisal Aziz & Salman Amin

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  • Abstract

    The current study was designed to analyze the curriculum of the teaching of social studies in the context of Castro & Galace Model of Peace Education (2010) (CGMP) applying the suggested framework by Levander & Mikkola (2009) about core curriculum using concept mapping framework (CMF). The concept map instrument was developed based on all three aspects of peace education. According to the concept mapping framework, the text was noted and explained. Experts' peer reliability was established through curriculum analysis by experienced experts. The analysis reflects that concepts of peace education exist in the curriculum in the context of the Castro & Galace Model of Peace Education (2010) and Peace Education is also presented in the learning activities. The analysis exposed that 9 aspects out of 9 of peace knowledge represented while 11 aspects out of 12 regarding peace values and 7 out of 8 aspects have representation. The unit wise analysis exposed that 4 units out of 6 (67%) regarding peace knowledge while 4 units out of 6 (67%) regarding peace values and 5 units out of 6 (83%) have representation of peace skills. It is recommended that Higher Education Commission (HEC) should revise the curriculum, design a separate course for peace education, give equal weightage to all aspects of peace education and manage co-curricular activities for B.Ed. (Hons) elementary 4 years program.

     Keywords: Peace Education, Teacher Education, Concept Mapping Framework, Castro & Galace Model of Peace Education (2010) (CGMP)

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    Authors

    Bakht Jamal , Syed Asad Abbas Rizvi & Muhmmad Munir Kayani