Tuition and Its association with demographic variables
Author(s) : Zubair Ahmad Shah, Mustaq Ahmad Malik, Shaista Khalid & Javed Hassan Akhtar
Private tuition is now a well established fact among different educational streams throughout the world with different magnitude. The countless students around the globe have to go through private tutoring even after the long day regular schooling. Over the last few decades, private tutoring is becoming a well established business oriented activity. It is also referred as “shadow educational system” (Bray, 2007). The private tutoring is complex, sometimes hidden and difficult to monitor, so there has been very less focus of researchers on it. The academies, institutions, tuition centers, home tuitions etc. are different forms of tuition. Private tuition is more common in urban than in rural areas; varies in time duration and different subjects, higher socio-economic status pay more tuition as compared to families with poor families. This study focused on the association between students’ tuition and their demographic variables in Pakistan. The sample was drawn from 37 schools of three districts consisting of 1337 students. The results show that there is a significant difference in association with tuition between gender, grade, school type and districts. Parental education and profession seems to have no association with tuition.
Key words: Tuition, academies, paternal education and profession, school type